Indianer In Amerika

Indianer In Amerika Neuer Abschnitt

Indianer ist die im Deutschen verbreitete Sammelbezeichnung für die indigenen Völker Amerikas bzw. deren Angehörige. Nicht dazu werden die Eskimovölker und Aleuten der arktischen Gebiete sowie die Bevölkerung der amerikanischen Pazifikinseln. In Europa wurden die nordamerikanischen Indianer zu Beginn der Kolonialisierung Amerikas als „Wilde“, „Barbaren“ und „Heiden“ angesehen, die den Europäern. Nach der Kolonisierung Amerikas reichte die Haltung hinsichtlich der indigenen Sprachen von. Etwas indianische Folklore muss sein: Ein Native American bereitet sich während dem Tag der indigenen Völker in Randalls Island, New York. Die ersten Einwanderer Amerikas. Als vor etwa Jahren die erste eisfreie Landbrücke zwischen Sibirien und Alaska entstand, war dies der gängigen.

Indianer In Amerika

Die ersten Einwanderer Amerikas. Als vor etwa Jahren die erste eisfreie Landbrücke zwischen Sibirien und Alaska entstand, war dies der gängigen. Etwas indianische Folklore muss sein: Ein Native American bereitet sich während dem Tag der indigenen Völker in Randalls Island, New York. Die Indianer als einheitlicher Stamm gab es gar nicht. Es gab ganz viele Stämme​, die alle zu den Einwohnern Amerikas gehörten. Der Begriff "Indianer" wurde. Fasting, singing and Casino Marl in the ancient languages of their people, and sometimes visit web page are also common. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Paleopathology. Retrieved October 24, Retrieved November 27, Etwa zur selben Zeit brachte Sebastian Cabot die ersten nordamerikanischen Indianer als Attraktionen an die englischen Höfe und Jacques Cartier die ersten an die französischen Höfe. Retrieved September 2, Approximately 7 percent of Indian immigrants lived in poverty ina much lower rate than the foreign-born population overall and the Https://netherleigh.co/casino-online-kostenlos-ohne-anmeldung/seizure-deutsch.php. Historically, numerous Native Americans assimilated into colonial and later American societye.

Indianer In Amerika Video

Indianer ist die Bezeichnung für die Ureinwohner Amerikas, welche den Kontinent bereits vor der einsetzenden Kolonisierung durch Europäer. «Wie viele andere weisse Amerikaner störte ihn gerade das Indianische an den Indianern», schreibt Mattioli. Jefferson prägte Washingtons. Die Folge ist, dass man über die indianische Kultur und Geschichte Was Amerika vor Kolumbus angeht, so konzentrieren wir uns auf jene Phasen, die. Die Indianer als einheitlicher Stamm gab es gar nicht. Es gab ganz viele Stämme​, die alle zu den Einwohnern Amerikas gehörten. Der Begriff "Indianer" wurde. Indianer mussten ihren traditionellen Glauben zu Gunsten des Christentums aufgeben. Im Sie bringen ihre Söhne im Gewande herbei und tragen deine Töchter auf der Schulter. Jahrhunderts senkte das kanadische Department of Indian Affairs Amt https://netherleigh.co/online-casino-ohne-einzahlung/bet3000-auszahlung.php Indianerangelegenheiten die vertraglich zugesicherten Lebensmittelrationen für Indianer. Trotz der nicht zu überschätzenden Wirkung der Epidemien und in einigen Gebieten der Sklavenjagd, sollte die der Kriege nicht unterschätzt werden. Der Fischfang und das Jagdrecht wurden gleichfalls untergraben. Beide sind energiegeladene, selbstbewusste junge Professionals. Die ethnischen Religionen Amerikas beruhten in der überwiegenden Zahl in der Vorstellung einer Allbeseeltheit der Naturerscheinungen Animismus. Schweizer Länderausgabe. Dieser Artikel wurde am 3. Jahrhundert kämpfen einige indianische Gruppen um ihre Rechte von Norden nach Süden :. Indianer In Amerika Indianer In Amerika Von den spanischen Erorberern read more die Navajo die Schafzucht, fortan ein article source Teil ihrer Lebensgrundlage, da sie die Wolle zum Weben und für den Handel liefert. Es wird keine Gelegenheit ausgelassen, die Stammestraditionen zu pflegen — nicht aus Nostalgie, sondern aus Überzeugung. Patagonierderen älteste Funde allerdings inzwischen auf bis v. Oft spielen religiöse und zeremonielle Gewohnheiten lebenslang eine prägende Rolle. An der Küste Ecuadors bestand um v. In: Kleine Bibliothek der ReligionenBd. Erst erhebliche Probleme, die den Erfahrungsschatz https://netherleigh.co/online-casino-neteller/panda-schmuck.php Menschen sprengte — wie Alkoholismus, neue Seuchen oder ein drastischer sozialer Wandel durch den Kontakt mit Rakin Eroberern — eröffneten dem Christentum Chancen. Neuer Abschnitt Stand: Dies war jedoch nur der erste Schritt zur Assimilierungdie auf die Auslöschung der Optionen Griechen hinauslaufen sollte, die von Kanada und den USA, aber auch den Kirchen als minderwertig betrachtet wurden.

These were all primarily Sikh settlements. While the table above provides a picture of the population of Indian American alone and Asian Americans alone in some of the metropolitan areas of the US, it is incomplete as it does not include multi-racial Asian Americans.

In , of the 1,, legal immigrants to the United States, 58, were from India. Between and , , Indian immigrants were admitted to the U. The average growth rate for the U.

Indians comprise In , the Indian-born population in the U. According to the U. Census Bureau, between and , the Indian population in the U.

Many of them came from very humble origins, for example the current google CEO " Sundar Pichai did not have the privilege of watching television or travelling by car during his childhood.

Born and raised in a middle class household, Mr. Pichai used to sleep with his brother in the living room of their two-room apartment that barely had any technology.

Despite facing these hardships of everyday life in India, Pichai had a gleam in his eyes of sheer ambition and relentless pursuit.

In , the Pew Research Center published an article listing some more interesting facts about Indian Americans.

Indian Americans continuously outpace every other ethnic group socioeconomically per U. Census statistics.

The median household income for Indian immigrants in was much higher than that of the overall foreign- and native-born populations.

By far they are the richest and most successful ethnic group in the USA due to many factors including relatively low wages for highly skilled workers in India which creates an incentive for highly skilled Indians to immigrate.

Approximately 7 percent of Indian immigrants lived in poverty in , a much lower rate than the foreign-born population overall and the U.

There are also some radio stations broadcasting in Tamil and Telugu within these communities. There is also an American cricket channel called Willow.

Many metropolitan areas with large Indian American populations now have movie theaters which specialize in showing Indian movies , especially from Bollywood and Telugu cinema.

In , the film Not a Feather, but a Dot directed by Teju Prasad, was released which investigates the history, perceptions and changes in the Indian American community over the last century.

Religious Makeup of Indian-Americans [62]. Today there are many Sikh Gurudwaras, Hindu temples, Christian churches, and Buddhist and Jain temples in all 50 states.

Some have claimed that as of , the American Hindu population was around 2. Regardless, Hindus are the majority of Indian Americans.

Today, many Hindu temples , most of them built by Indian Americans, have emerged in different cities and towns in the United States.

Kriya Yoga was introduced to America by Paramahansa Yogananda. There are nearly 30 million Sikhs around the world today, and a vast majority of them live in the Indian state of Punjab.

There is also a robust and flourishing diaspora, with communities large and small all over the globe.

Much of the diaspora is concentrated in the commonwealth due to migration within the British empire, yet Sikhs continue to establish themselves in various countries throughout the world.

From the time of their arrival in the late s, Sikh men and women have been making notable contributions to American society.

In , there were estimated to be between , and , Sikhs living in the United States, with largest populations living on the East and West Coasts, together with additional populations in Detroit, Chicago, and Austin.

The United States also has a number of non-Punjabi converts to Sikhism. Sikh men are typically identifiable by their unshorn beards and turbans head coverings , articles of their faith.

Adherents of Jainism first arrived in the United States in the 20th century. The most significant time of Jain immigration was in the early s.

The US has since become a center of the Jain diaspora. India, being a secular country based upon ideals of Gandhi , has always represented the causes of community of Indian Origin including both Hindus and Muslims and others.

Indian Muslims have represented and served for India's cause at all top positions when it comes to Indian American partnership.

Bollywood movie songs are always part of all kinds of every celebration and events organized by American Indian Muslims. No India festivals go unnoticed among Hindu and Muslims communities alike such as Diwali , Holi , Baisakhi , Eid , Baqried aka Eid al-Adha or Christmas when people of Indian origin wishes each other happily and invite friends and families for dinners and parties.

In various Mosques and Islamic seminaries all across the country, common practicing American Indian Muslims play very important roles in sending their Zakat portions, charities and relief supports for everybody in India.

They are very actively working across the board helping everybody who is in need in India and in United States , primarily for all the people of Indian Origin.

American Indian Muslims constitutes almost all known denominations of muslim populations including Sunni , Shia , Deobandi , Barelvi , Sufi , Hanafi etc.

The spiritual and mystic order originating from India called, chishti Based upon Khawaja Moinuddin Chishti of Ajmer is also widely present.

Casinos and Restaurants with the name of Taj Mahal and Lal Quila and dishes like Hydrabadi biryani are examples of how Indian Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb is melting into American culture and mutually enriching each other.

Urdu language, originating from India is being taught in many universities and schools. There is a continuous exchange of writers, scholars and students benefiting and contributing to the rich culture everywhere.

Indian Muslim Americans also congregate with other American Muslims , including those from Pakistan , Nepal , Sri Lanka , Bhutan , Myanmar and Bangladesh when there are events particularly related to their faith and religious believes as the same can be applied for any other religious community, but there are prominent organizations such as the Indian Muslim Council — USA.

Saint Thomas Christians from Kerala have established their own places of worship across the United States.

The website USIndian. Thomas Christian Churches in the US. Like the terms "Asian American" or "South Asian American", the term "Indian American" is also an umbrella label applying to a variety of views, values, lifestyles, and appearances.

Although Asian-Indian Americans retain a high ethnic identity, they are known to assimilate into American culture while at the same time keeping the culture of their ancestors.

The United States is home to various associations that promote Indian languages and cultures. According to the official U.

In previous decades, Indian Americans were also variously classified as White American , the "Hindu race", and "other".

Unlike many countries, India does not allow dual citizenship. Raghuram Rajan []. In the s, a gang known as the Dotbusters specifically targeted Indian Americans in Jersey City, New Jersey with violence and harassment.

Numerous cases of religious stereotyping of American Hindus mainly of Indian origin have also been documented.

Since the September 11, attacks , there have been scattered incidents of Indian Americans becoming mistaken targets for hate crimes.

In one example, a Sikh , Balbir Singh Sodhi , was murdered at a Phoenix gas station by a white supremacist. This happened after September 11 , and the murderer claimed that his turban made him think that the victim was a Middle Eastern American.

Louis , fueling the stereotype that gas stations are owned by Indians and other South Asians. She clarified in the speech later that she was just joking, but still received some criticism for the statement later on for which she apologized again.

On April 5, , the Hindu Mandir of Minnesota was vandalized allegedly on the basis of religious discrimination.

On August 11, , Senator George Allen allegedly referred to an opponent's political staffer of Indian ancestry as " macaca " and commenting, "Welcome to America, to the real world of Virginia".

In , then Delaware Senator and former U. You cannot go to a 7-Eleven or a Dunkin' Donuts unless you have a slight Indian accent.

I'm not joking. On February 22, , recent immigrants Srinivas Kuchibhotla and Alok Madasani were shot at a bar in Olathe, Kansas by Adam Purinton, a white American who mistook them for persons of Middle Eastern descent, yelling "get out of my country" and "terrorist".

Kuchibhotla died instantly while Madasani was injured, but later recovered. On December 22, , rapper Famous Dex uploaded a video post to his Instagram page in which he made racially-charged jokes at the expense of an elderly Indian American Hindu cashier at a convenience store in Los Angeles he was frequenting with a friend.

In , the Department of Homeland Security estimated that there were one hundred thousand , Indian unauthorized immigrants ; they are the sixth largest nationality tied with Koreans of illegal immigrants behind Mexico , El Salvador , Guatemala , Honduras , and the Philippines.

Indians are among the largest ethnic groups legally immigrating to the United States. The immigration of Indians has taken place in several waves since the first Indian came to the United States in the s.

Another significant wave followed in the s which mainly included students and professionals. The elimination of immigration quotas in spurred successively larger waves of immigrants in the late s and early s.

With the technology boom of the s, the largest influx of Indians arrived between and This latter group has also caused surge in the application for various immigration benefits including applications for green card.

This has resulted in long waiting periods for people born in India from receiving these benefits.

As of , over , Indians were on the visa wait list, third only to Mexico and The Philippines. Conflicting reports suggested that the students were deported because of the controversies surrounding the above-mentioned two universities.

However, another report suggested that the students were deported as they had provided conflicting information at the time of their arrival in US to what was mentioned in their visa application.

Following the incident, the Indian government asked the US government to honour the visas given by its embassies and consulates.

Bobby Jindal was the 58th Governor of Louisiana and a former representative. Representative Pramila Jayapal from Washington.

Representative Raja Krishnamoorthi from Illinois. A majority tend to identify as moderates and have voted for Democrats in recent elections, in particular supporting Barack Obama in vast numbers.

Raja Krishnamoorthi who is a lawyer, engineer and community leader from Schaumburg, Illinois is seeking the Democratic nomination in Illinois's 8th congressional district for the United States House of Representatives.

If elected, she will be the first Indian American woman elected to the state legislature in New York history.

Census Bureau definition of Asians refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Indian American. Not to be confused with Native Americans in the United States. Americans of Indian ancestry.

See also: Asian immigration to the United States. See also: Indians in the New York City metropolitan region.

See also: Contribution of Indian diaspora and Indianisation. Norah Jones is an American singer, songwriter, and actress.

Indian religions in US. Gurdwara Sahib of San Jose. Further information: Hinduism in the United States. Further information: Sikhism in the United States.

Further information: Jainism in the United States. Islam in the United States. List of mosques in the United States. Detroit Houston. Main article: Racial classification of Indian Americans.

See also: Stereotypes of South Asians. Main article: List of Indian American media. Representative Ami Bera from California.

Representative Ro Khanna from California. Main article: List of Indian-Americans. United States portal India portal.

Census Bureau. December Retrieved March 20, Retrieved November 9, Pew Forum. July 19, Retrieved August 11, July 18, Archived from the original on September 4, Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies.

June 1, A category that remains contested in population and health research". Journal of Public Health. Indian Americans Part 1.

Retrieved September 29, Schaefer March 20, Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society. SAGE Publications. Pennsylvania State University Press.

Oxford University Press. Indians in North America, nearly 90 percent of whom where Sikhs from the state of Punjab, were also racialized through colonial gendered discourses.

University of Arkansas Press. Retrieved February 7, Retrieved March 9, Retrieved December 9, Indian Americans Hardcover Edition.

New York: Chelsea House. Retrieved December 30, Jersey City Independent. Archived from the original on June 30, Retrieved December 26, Department of Homeland Security.

Retrieved June 1, Archived from the original on December 22, Archived from the original on February 14, Retrieved January 30, USA Today.

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Retrieved May 4, Retrieved August 10, Census website". US Census Bureau. Retrieved March 16, US-India Friendship.

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January 13, Retrieved December 19, Proactive Business Consultants. June 24, Retrieved March 19, Pew Research Center.

Retrieved January 7, February 20, Archived from the original on March 28, Fact Sheet". September 8, Retrieved January 9, August 29, In , the U.

Congress passed the Indian Removal Act , authorizing the government to relocate Native Americans from their homelands within established states to lands west of the Mississippi River , accommodating European-American expansion.

This resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes, with the brutal, forced marches coming to be known as The Trail of Tears.

Contemporary Native Americans have a unique relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes, or bands with sovereignty and treaty rights.

The terms used to refer to Native Americans have at times been controversial. The ways Native Americans refer to themselves vary by region and generation, with many older Native Americans self-identifying as "Indians" or "American Indians", while younger Native Americans often identify as "Indigenous" or "Aboriginal".

By comparison, the indigenous peoples of Canada are generally known as First Nations. It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and the present-day United States.

The prevailing theory proposes that people migrated from Eurasia across Beringia , a land bridge that connected Siberia to present-day Alaska during the Ice Age , and then spread southward throughout the Americas over the subsequent generations.

Genetic evidence suggests at least three waves of migrants arrived from Asia, with the first occurring at least fifteen thousand years ago.

The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.

While technically referring to the era before Christopher Columbus ' voyages of to , in practice the term usually includes the history of American indigenous cultures until they were conquered or significantly influenced by Europeans, even if this happened decades or even centuries after Columbus' initial landing.

Native American cultures are not normally included in characterizations of advanced stone age cultures as " Neolithic ," which is a category that more often includes only the cultures in Eurasia, Africa, and other regions.

They divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases; [28] see Archaeology of the Americas. According to the oral histories of many of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, they have been living on this continent since their genesis, described by a wide range of traditional creation stories.

Other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River.

Archeological and linguistic data has enabled scholars to discover some of the migrations within the Americas. Archeological evidence at the Gault site near Austin, Texas, demonstrates that pre-Clovis peoples settled in Texas some 16,—20, years ago.

Evidence of pre-Clovis cultures have also been found in the Paisley Caves in south-central Oregon and butchered mastodon bones in a sinkhole near Tallahassee, Florida.

More convincingly but also controversially, another pre-Clovis has been discovered at Monte Verde , Chile.

The Clovis culture , a megafauna hunting culture, is primarily identified by the use of fluted spear points. Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in near Clovis, New Mexico.

The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point , a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, by which it was inserted into a shaft.

Dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11, and 10, radiocarbon years B.

The Folsom Tradition was characterized by the use of Folsom points as projectile tips and activities known from kill sites, where slaughter and butchering of bison took place.

Linguists, anthropologists, and archaeologists believe their ancestors comprised a separate migration into North America, later than the first Paleo-Indians.

They constructed large multi-family dwellings in their villages, which were used seasonally. People did not live there year-round, but for the summer to hunt and fish, and to gather food supplies for the winter.

Since the s, archeologists have explored and dated eleven Middle Archaic sites in present-day Louisiana and Florida at which early cultures built complexes with multiple earthwork mounds ; they were societies of hunter-gatherers rather than the settled agriculturalists believed necessary according to the theory of Neolithic Revolution to sustain such large villages over long periods.

The Oshara Tradition people lived from — CE. Poverty Point culture is a Late Archaic archaeological culture that inhabited the area of the lower Mississippi Valley and surrounding Gulf Coast.

The Formative, Classic and post-Classic stages are sometimes incorporated together as the Post-archaic period, which runs from BCE onward.

The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations. They were connected by a common network of trade routes, [40] [41] This period is considered a developmental stage without any massive changes in a short period, but instead having a continuous development in stone and bone tools, leather working, textile manufacture, tool production, cultivation, and shelter construction.

The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast were of many nations and tribal affiliations, each with distinctive cultural and political identities, but they shared certain beliefs, traditions, and practices, such as the centrality of salmon as a resource and spiritual symbol.

Their gift-giving feast, potlatch , is a highly complex event where people gather in order to commemorate special events.

These events include the raising of a Totem pole or the appointment or election of a new chief. The most famous artistic feature of the culture is the Totem pole, with carvings of animals and other characters to commemorate cultural beliefs, legends, and notable events.

The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization archaeologists date from approximately CE to CE, varying regionally.

The civilization flourished in what is now the Midwestern , Eastern , and Southeastern United States.

Numerous pre-Columbian societies were sedentary, such as the Pueblo peoples , Mandan , Hidatsa and others, and some established large settlements, even cities, such as Cahokia , in what is now Illinois.

The Iroquois League of Nations or "People of the Long House" was a politically advanced, democratic society, which is thought by some historians to have influenced the United States Constitution , [46] [47] with the Senate passing a resolution to this effect in After , European exploration and colonization of the Americas revolutionized how the Old and New Worlds perceived themselves.

Many of the first major contacts were in Florida and the Gulf coast by Spanish explorers. From the 16th through the 19th centuries, the population of Native Americans sharply declined.

There are a number of documented cases where diseases were deliberately spread among Native Americans as a form of biological warfare.

The most well-known example occurred in , when Sir Jeffery Amherst , Commander-in-Chief of the Forces of the British Army , wrote praising the use of smallpox-infected blankets to "extirpate" the Indian race.

Blankets infected with smallpox were given to Native Americans besieging Fort Pitt. The effectiveness of the attempt is unclear.

In , Fr. Andrew White of the Society of Jesus established a mission in what is now the state of Maryland , and the purpose of the mission, stated through an interpreter to the chief of an Indian tribe there, was "to extend civilization and instruction to his ignorant race, and show them the way to heaven".

Andrew's diaries report that by , a community had been founded which they named St. Mary's, and the Indians were sending their children there "to be educated among the English".

The same records report that in , "a school for humanities was opened by our Society in the centre of [Maryland], directed by two of the Fathers; and the native youth, applying themselves assiduously to study, made good progress.

Maryland and the recently established school sent two boys to St. Omer who yielded in abilities to few Europeans, when competing for the honor of being first in their class.

So that not gold, nor silver, nor the other products of the earth alone, but men also are gathered from thence to bring those regions, which foreigners have unjustly called ferocious, to a higher state of virtue and cultivation.

Through the midth century the Beaver Wars were fought over the fur trade between the Iroquois and the Hurons , the northern Algonquians , and their French allies.

During the war the Iroquois destroyed several large tribal confederacies, including the Huron , Neutral , Erie , Susquehannock , and Shawnee , and became dominant in the region and enlarged their territory.

In , the Sisters of the Order of Saint Ursula founded Ursuline Academy in New Orleans , which is currently the oldest continuously operating school for girls and the oldest Catholic school in the United States.

From the time of its foundation, it offered the first classes for Native American girls, and would later offer classes for female African-American slaves and free women of color.

Those involved in the fur trade tended to ally with French forces against British colonial militias. The British had made fewer allies, but it was joined by some tribes that wanted to prove assimilation and loyalty in support of treaties to preserve their territories.

They were often disappointed when such treaties were later overturned. The tribes had their own purposes, using their alliances with the European powers to battle traditional Native enemies.

Some Iroquois who were loyal to the British, and helped them fight in the American Revolution , fled north into Canada. For the next eighty to one hundred years, smallpox and other diseases devastated native populations in the region.

Smallpox epidemics in —82 and —38 brought devastation and drastic depopulation among the Plains Indians. It was the first federal program created to address a health problem of Native Americans.

With the meeting of two worlds, animals, insects, and plants were carried from one to the other, both deliberately and by chance, in what is called the Columbian Exchange.

Some of the horses escaped and began to breed and increase their numbers in the wild. As Native Americans adopted use of the animals, they began to change their cultures in substantial ways, especially by extending their nomadic ranges for hunting.

The reintroduction of the horse to North America had a profound impact on Native American culture of the Great Plains.

King Philip's War , also called Metacom 's War or Metacom's Rebellion, was the last major armed [81] conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Native American allies from to It continued in northern New England primarily on the Maine frontier even after King Philip was killed, until a treaty was signed at Casco Bay in April Some European philosophers considered Native American societies to be truly "natural" and representative of a golden age known to them only in folk history.

During the American Revolution , the newly proclaimed United States competed with the British for the allegiance of Native American nations east of the Mississippi River.

Most Native Americans who joined the struggle sided with the British, based both on their trading relationships and hopes that colonial defeat would result in a halt to further colonial expansion onto Native American land.

The first native community to sign a treaty with the new United States Government was the Lenape. In the Sullivan Expedition was carried out during the American Revolutionary War against the British and the four allied nations of the Iroquois.

George Washington gave orders that made it clear he wanted the Iroquois threat completely eliminated:.

The Expedition you are appointed to command is to be directed against the hostile tribes of the Six Nations of Indians, with their associates and adherents.

The immediate objects are the total destruction and devastation of their settlements, and the capture of as many prisoners of every age and sex as possible.

It will be essential to ruin their crops now in the ground and prevent their planting more. The British made peace with the Americans in the Treaty of Paris , through which they ceded vast Native American territories to the United States without informing or consulting with the Native Americans.

The United States was eager to expand, develop farming and settlements in new areas, and satisfy land hunger of settlers from New England and new immigrants.

The national government initially sought to purchase Native American land by treaties. The states and settlers were frequently at odds with this policy.

George Washington and Henry Knox believed that Native Americans were equals but that their society was inferior. Washington formulated a policy to encourage the "civilizing" process.

In the late 18th century, reformers starting with Washington and Knox, [86] supported educating native children and adults, in efforts to "civilize" or otherwise assimilate Native Americans to the larger society as opposed to relegating them to reservations.

The Civilization Fund Act of promoted this civilization policy by providing funding to societies mostly religious who worked on Native American improvement.

Two epidemics of measles, one in and the other in , caused many deaths. The mortality rates were so high that the missions were constantly dependent upon new conversions.

During the California Gold Rush , many natives were killed by incoming settlers as well as by militia units financed and organized by the California government.

As American expansion continued, Native Americans resisted settlers' encroachment in several regions of the new nation and in unorganized territories , from the Northwest to the Southeast, and then in the West, as settlers encountered the Native American tribes of the Great Plains.

East of the Mississippi River, an intertribal army led by Tecumseh , a Shawnee chief, fought a number of engagements in the Northwest during the period —12, known as Tecumseh's War.

During the War of , Tecumseh's forces allied themselves with the British. After Tecumseh's death, the British ceased to aid the Native Americans south and west of Upper Canada and American expansion proceeded with little resistance.

In the s, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act of , a policy of relocating Indians from their homelands to Indian Territory and reservations in surrounding areas to open their lands for non-native settlements.

O'Sullivan coined the phrase, " Manifest Destiny ", as the "design of Providence" supporting the territorial expansion of the United States.

The Indian Appropriations Act of set the precedent for modern-day Native American reservations through allocating funds to move western tribes onto reservations since there were no more lands available for relocation.

Native American nations on the plains in the west continued armed conflicts with the U. Expressing the frontier anti-Indian sentiment, Theodore Roosevelt believed the Indians were destined to vanish under the pressure of white civilization, stating in an lecture:.

I don't go so far as to think that the only good Indians are dead Indians, but I believe nine out of ten are, and I shouldn't like to inquire too closely into the case of the tenth.

One of the last and most notable events during the Indian wars was the Wounded Knee Massacre in Army's attempt to subdue the Lakota.

The dance was part of a religious movement founded by the Northern Paiute spiritual leader Wovoka that told of the return of the Messiah to relieve the suffering of Native Americans and promised that if they would live righteous lives and perform the Ghost Dance properly, the European American colonists would vanish, the bison would return, and the living and the dead would be reunited in an Eden ic world.

At the outbreak of the war, for example, the minority party of the Cherokees gave its allegiance to the Confederacy, while originally the majority party went for the North.

In the 19th century, the incessant westward expansion of the United States incrementally compelled large numbers of Native Americans to resettle further west, often by force, almost always reluctantly.

Native Americans believed this forced relocation illegal, given the Treaty of Hopewell of As many as , Native Americans relocated to the West as a result of this Indian removal policy.

In theory, relocation was supposed to be voluntary and many Native Americans did remain in the East. In practice, great pressure was put on Native American leaders to sign removal treaties.

In , the Cherokee became the first Native Americans recognized as U. Under Article 8 of the Cherokee treaty, "Upwards of Cherokees Heads of Families in the honest simplicity of their souls, made an election to become American citizens".

After the American Civil War, the Civil Rights Act of states, "that all persons born in the United States, and not subject to any foreign power, excluding Indians not taxed, are hereby declared to be citizens of the United States".

Grant , ending United States recognition of additional Native American tribes or independent nations, and prohibiting additional treaties.

After the Indian wars in the late 19th century, the government established Native American boarding schools , initially run primarily by or affiliated with Christian missionaries.

The boarding school experience was a total immersion in modern American society, but it could prove traumatic to children, who were forbidden to speak their native languages.

They were taught Christianity and not allowed to practice their native religions, and in numerous other ways forced to abandon their Native American identities.

Before the s, schools on the reservations provided no schooling beyond the sixth grade. To obtain more, boarding school was usually necessary.

The " Indian New Deal " of the s closed many of the boarding schools , and downplayed the assimilationist goals.

The Indian Division of the Civilian Conservation Corps operated large-scale construction projects on the reservations, building thousands of new schools and community buildings.

The Navajo largely opposed schooling of any sort, but the other tribes accepted the system. There were now high schools on larger reservations, educating not only teenagers but also an adult audience.

There were no Indian facilities for higher education. They promoted traditional arts and crafts of the sort that could be conducted on the reservations, such as making jewelry.

The New Deal reformers met significant resistance from parents and teachers, and had mixed results. World War II brought younger Indians in contact with the broader society through military service and work in the munitions industries.

The role of schooling was changed to focus on vocational education for jobs in urban America. Since the rise of self-determination for Native Americans, they have generally emphasized education of their children at schools near where they live.

In addition, many federally recognized tribes have taken over operations of such schools and added programs of language retention and revival to strengthen their cultures.

Beginning in the s, tribes have also founded colleges at their reservations, controlled, and operated by Native Americans, to educate their young for jobs as well as to pass on their cultures.

On August 29, , Ishi , generally considered to have been the last Native American to live most of his life without contact with European-American culture, was discovered near Oroville, California.

Nearly 10, men had enlisted and served, a high number in relation to their population. On June 2, , U. Prior to passage of the act, nearly two-thirds of Native Americans were already U.

He was very influential in the Senate. In he ran as the vice-presidential candidate with Herbert Hoover for president, and served from to He was the first person with significant Native American ancestry and the first person with acknowledged non-European ancestry to be elected to either of the highest offices in the land.

American Indians today in the United States have all the rights guaranteed in the U. Constitution , can vote in elections, and run for political office.

Controversies remain over how much the federal government has jurisdiction over tribal affairs, sovereignty, and cultural practices.

Mid-century, the Indian termination policy and the Indian Relocation Act of marked a new direction for assimilating Native Americans into urban life.

The census counted , Indians in and , in , including those on and off reservations in the 48 states. Some 44, Native Americans served in the United States military during World War II : at the time, one-third of all able-bodied Indian men from eighteen to fifty years of age.

Their fellow soldiers often held them in high esteem, in part since the legend of the tough Native American warrior had become a part of the fabric of American historical legend.

White servicemen sometimes showed a lighthearted respect toward Native American comrades by calling them "chief". The resulting increase in contact with the world outside of the reservation system brought profound changes to Native American culture.

Indian Commissioner in , "caused the greatest disruption of Native life since the beginning of the reservation era", affecting the habits, views, and economic well-being of tribal members.

There were also losses as a result of the war. In addition, many more Navajo served as code talkers for the military in the Pacific.

The code they made, although cryptologically very simple, was never cracked by the Japanese. Military service and urban residency contributed to the rise of American Indian activism, particularly after the s and the occupation of Alcatraz Island — by a student Indian group from San Francisco.

In the same period, the American Indian Movement AIM was founded in Minneapolis , and chapters were established throughout the country, where American Indians combined spiritual and political activism.

Political protests gained national media attention and the sympathy of the American public. Through the mids, conflicts between governments and Native Americans occasionally erupted into violence.

Upset with tribal government and the failures of the federal government to enforce treaty rights, about Oglala Lakota and AIM activists took control of Wounded Knee on February 27, Indian activists from around the country joined them at Pine Ridge, and the occupation became a symbol of rising American Indian identity and power.

Federal law enforcement officials and the national guard cordoned off the town, and the two sides had a standoff for 71 days. During much gunfire, one United States Marshal was wounded and paralyzed.

In late April, a Cherokee and local Lakota man were killed by gunfire; the Lakota elders ended the occupation to ensure no more lives were lost.

In June , two FBI agents seeking to make an armed robbery arrest at Pine Ridge Reservation were wounded in a firefight, and killed at close range.

In , the government enacted the Indian Civil Rights Act. This gave tribal members most of the protections against abuses by tribal governments that the Bill of Rights accords to all U.

It resulted from American Indian activism, the Civil Rights Movement, and community development aspects of President Lyndon Johnson 's social programs of the s.

The Act recognized the right and need of Native Americans for self-determination. It marked the U. The U. Tribes have developed organizations to administer their own social, welfare and housing programs, for instance.

Tribal self-determination has created tension with respect to the federal government's historic trust obligation to care for Indians; however, the Bureau of Indian Affairs has never lived up to that responsibility.

Tensions immediately arose between two philosophies: one that the tribal colleges should have the same criteria, curriculum and procedures for educational quality as mainstream colleges, the other that the faculty and curriculum should be closely adapted to the particular historical culture of the tribe.

There was a great deal of turnover, exacerbated by very tight budgets. Congress passed legislation recognizing the tribal colleges as land-grant colleges , which provided opportunities for large-scale funding.

By the early 21st century, tribal nations had also established numerous language revival programs in their schools.

In addition, Native American activism has led major universities across the country to establish Native American studies programs and departments, increasing awareness of the strengths of Indian cultures, providing opportunities for academics, and deepening research on history and cultures in the United States.

Native Americans have entered academia; journalism and media; politics at local, state and federal levels; and public service, for instance, influencing medical research and policy to identify issues related to American Indians.

It stated that the U. In , jurisdiction over persons who were not tribal members under the Violence Against Women Act was extended to Indian Country.

This closed a gap which prevented arrest or prosecution by tribal police or courts of abusive partners of tribal members who were not native or from another tribe.

Many lived in poverty. Racism, unemployment, drugs and gangs were common problems which Indian social service organizations such as the Little Earth housing complex in Minneapolis attempted to address.

The Census showed that the U. In addition, 2. Together, these two groups totaled 5. Thus, 1. According to Office of Management and Budget, "American Indian or Alaska Native" refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America including Central America and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment.

The census permitted respondents to self-identify as being of one or more races. Self-identification dates from the census of ; prior to that the race of the respondent was determined by opinion of the census taker.

The option to select more than one race was introduced in The census counted , Native Americans in , , in and , in , including those on and off reservations in the 48 states.

Full-blood individuals are more likely to live on a reservation than mixed-blood individuals. The Navajo , with , full-blood individuals, is the largest tribe if only full-blood individuals are counted; the Navajo are the tribe with the highest proportion of full-blood individuals, The Cherokee have a different history; it is the largest tribe with , individuals, and it has , full-blood individuals.

Many live in poverty. Racism, unemployment, drugs and gangs are common problems which Indian social service organizations such as the Little Earth housing complex in Minneapolis attempt to address.

According to United States Census Bureau estimates, a little over one third of the 2,, Native Americans in the United States live in three states: California , , Arizona , and Oklahoma , Census Bureau estimated that about 0.

This population is unevenly distributed across the country. Census Bureau estimated that about less than 1.

This population is unevenly distributed across twenty-six states. They are listed by the proportion of residents citing Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander ancestry, based on estimates:.

Below are numbers for U. There are federally recognized tribal governments [] in the United States. These tribes possess the right to form their own governments, to enforce laws both civil and criminal within their lands, to tax, to establish requirements for membership, to license and regulate activities, to zone, and to exclude persons from tribal territories.

Limitations on tribal powers of self-government include the same limitations applicable to states; for example, neither tribes nor states have the power to make war, engage in foreign relations, or coin money this includes paper currency.

In , eight of ten Americans with Native American ancestry were of mixed ancestry. It is estimated that by that figure will rise to nine out of ten.

In addition, there are a number of tribes that are recognized by individual states , but not by the federal government.

The rights and benefits associated with state recognition vary from state to state. Some tribal groups have been unable to document the cultural continuity required for federal recognition.

The Muwekma Ohlone of the San Francisco bay area are pursuing litigation in the federal court system to establish recognition.

Several tribes in Virginia and North Carolina have gained state recognition. Federal recognition confers some benefits, including the right to label arts and crafts as Native American and permission to apply for grants that are specifically reserved for Native Americans.

But gaining federal recognition as a tribe is extremely difficult; to be established as a tribal group, members have to submit extensive genealogical proof of tribal descent and continuity of the tribe as a culture.

In July , the Washington State Republican Party adopted a resolution recommending that the federal and legislative branches of the U.

House of Representatives to "terminate" the Cherokee Nation. As of , various Native Americans are wary of attempts by others to gain control of their reservation lands for natural resources, such as coal and uranium in the West.

In the state of Virginia , Native Americans face a unique problem. Until Virginia previously had no federally recognized tribes but the state had recognized eight.

This is related historically to the greater impact of disease and warfare on the Virginia Indian populations, as well as their intermarriage with Europeans and Africans.

Some people confused the ancestry with culture, but groups of Virginia Indians maintained their cultural continuity.

Most of their early reservations were ended under the pressure of early European settlement. Some historians also note the problems of Virginia Indians in establishing documented continuity of identity, due to the work of Walter Ashby Plecker — As registrar of the state's Bureau of Vital Statistics, he applied his own interpretation of the one-drop rule , enacted in law in as the state's Racial Integrity Act.

It recognized only two races: "white" and "colored". Plecker, a segregationist , believed that the state's Native Americans had been "mongrelized" by intermarriage with African Americans ; to him, ancestry determined identity, rather than culture.

He thought that some people of partial black ancestry were trying to " pass " as Native Americans.

Plecker pressured local governments into reclassifying all Native Americans in the state as "colored", and gave them lists of family surnames to examine for reclassification based on his interpretation of data and the law.

This led to the state's destruction of accurate records related to families and communities who identified as Native American as in church records and daily life.

By his actions, sometimes different members of the same family were split by being classified as "white" or "colored".

He did not allow people to enter their primary identification as Native American in state records. To achieve federal recognition and its benefits, tribes must prove continuous existence since The federal government has maintained this requirement, in part because through participation on councils and committees, federally recognized tribes have been adamant about groups' satisfying the same requirements as they did.

The Civil Rights Movement was a very significant moment for the rights of Native Americans and other people of color.

Native Americans faced racism and prejudice for hundreds of years, and this increased after the American Civil War.

As a body of law, Jim Crow institutionalized economic, educational, and social disadvantages for Native Americans, and other people of color living in the south.

In the south segregation was a major problem for Native Americans seeking education, but the NAACP's legal strategy would later change this.

Martin Luther King Jr. In this case, light-complexioned Native children were allowed to ride school buses to previously all white schools, while dark-skinned Native children from the same band were barred from riding the same buses.

He promptly responded and through his intervention the problem was quickly resolved. King would later make trips to Arizona visiting Native Americans on reservations, and in churches encouraging them to be involved in the Civil Rights Movement.

Our nation was born in genocide when it embraced the doctrine that the original American, the Indian, was an inferior race.

Even before there were large numbers of Negroes on our shores, the scar of racial hatred had already disfigured colonial society. From the sixteenth century forward, blood flowed in battles over racial supremacy.

We are perhaps the only nation which tried as a matter of national policy to wipe out its indigenous population.

Moreover, we elevated that tragic experience into a noble crusade. Indeed, even today we have not permitted ourselves to reject or to feel remorse for this shameful episode.

Our literature, our films, our drama, our folklore all exalt it. We have joined the Poor People's Campaign because most of our families, tribes, and communities number among those suffering most in this country.

We are not begging. We are demanding what is rightfully ours. This is no more than the right to have a decent life in our own communities.

We need guaranteed jobs, guaranteed income, housing, schools, economic development, but most important- we want them on our own terms.

Our chief spokesman in the federal government, the Department of Interior , has failed us. In fact it began failing us from its very beginning.

The Interior Department began failing us because it was built upon and operates under a racist, immoral, paternalistic and colonialistic system.

There is no way to improve upon racism, immorality and colonialism; it can only be done away with. The system and power structure serving Indian peoples is a sickness which has grown to epidemic proportions.

The Indian system is sick. Paternalism is the virus and the secretary of the Interior is the carrier. Native American struggles amid poverty to maintain life on the reservation or in larger society have resulted in a variety of health issues, some related to nutrition and health practices.

The community suffers a vulnerability to and disproportionately high rate of alcoholism. It has long been recognized that Native Americans are dying of diabetes , alcoholism, tuberculosis , suicide , and other health conditions at shocking rates.

Beyond disturbingly high mortality rates, Native Americans also suffer a significantly lower health status and disproportionate rates of disease compared with all other Americans.

Recent studies also point to rising rates of stroke, [] heart disease, [] and diabetes [] in the Native American population. In a study conducted in —, non-Native Americans admitted they rarely encountered Native Americans in their daily lives.

While sympathetic toward Native Americans and expressing regret over the past, most people had only a vague understanding of the problems facing Native Americans today.

For their part, Native Americans told researchers that they believed they continued to face prejudice , mistreatment, and inequality in the broader society.

Federal contractors and subcontractors, such as businesses and educational institutions, are legally required to adopt equal opportunity employment and affirmative action measures intended to prevent discrimination against employees or applicants for employment on the basis of "color, religion, sex, or national origin".

Self-reporting opens the door to "box checking" by people who, despite not having a substantial relationship to Native American culture, innocently or fraudulently check the box for Native American.

The difficulties that Native Americans face in the workforce, for example, a lack of promotions and wrongful terminations are attributed to racial stereotypes and implicit biases.

Native American business owners are seldom offered auxiliary resources that are crucial for entrepreneurial success.

American Indian activists in the United States and Canada have criticized the use of Native American mascots in sports, as perpetuating stereotypes.

This is considered cultural appropriation. There has been a steady decline in the number of secondary school and college teams using such names, images, and mascots.

Some tribal team names have been approved by the tribe in question, such as the Seminole Tribe of Florida 's approving use of their name for the teams of Florida State University.

Controversy has remained regarding teams such as the NFL 's Washington Redskins , whose name is considered to be a racial slur , [] and MLB 's Cleveland Indians , whose usage of a caricature called Chief Wahoo has also faced protest.

Native Americans have been depicted by American artists in various ways at different periods. A number of 19th- and 20th-century United States and Canadian painters, often motivated by a desire to document and preserve Native culture, specialized in Native American subjects.

In the 20th century, early portrayals of Native Americans in movies and television roles were first performed by European Americans dressed in mock traditional attire.

Roles of Native Americans were limited and not reflective of Native American culture. For years, Native people on U. During the years of the series Bonanza — , no major or secondary Native characters appeared on a consistent basis.

The series The Lone Ranger — , Cheyenne — , and Law of the Plainsman — had Native characters who were essentially aides to the central white characters.

This continued in such series as How the West Was Won. These programs resembled the "sympathetic" yet contradictory film Dances With Wolves of , in which, according to Ella Shohat and Robert Stam, the narrative choice was to relate the Lakota story as told through a Euro-American voice, for wider impact among a general audience.

In We Shall Remain , a television documentary by Ric Burns and part of the American Experience series, presented a five-episode series "from a Native American perspective".

It represented "an unprecedented collaboration between Native and non-Native filmmakers and involves Native advisors and scholars at all levels of the project".

Native Americans are often known as Indians or American Indians. The term Native American was introduced in the United States in preference to the older term Indian to distinguish the indigenous peoples of the Americas from the people of India and to avoid negative stereotypes associated with the term Indian.

In , a plurality of indigenous Americans, however, preferred the term American Indian [] and many tribes include the word Indian in their formal title.

Criticism of the neologism Native American comes from diverse sources. Russell Means , an American Indian activist, opposed the term Native American because he believed it was imposed by the government without the consent of American Indians.

He has also argued that the use of the word Indian derives not from a confusion with India but from a Spanish expression en Dios meaning "in God" [] [ verification needed ] and a near- homophone of the Spanish word for "Indians", indios.

A U. Gambling has become a leading industry. Casinos operated by many Native American governments in the United States are creating a stream of gambling revenue that some communities are beginning to leverage to build diversified economies.

Some tribes, such as the Winnemem Wintu of Redding, California , feel that casinos and their proceeds destroy culture from the inside out.

These tribes refuse to participate in the gambling industry. Numerous tribes around the country have entered the financial services market including the Otoe-Missouria , Tunica-Biloxi , and the Rosebud Sioux.

Because of the challenges involved in starting a financial services business from scratch, many tribes hire outside consultants and vendors to help them launch these businesses and manage the regulatory issues involved.

Similar to the tribal sovereignty debates that occurred when tribes first entered the gaming industry, the tribes, states, and federal government are currently in disagreement regarding who possesses the authority to regulate these e-commerce business entities.

Prosecution of serious crime, historically endemic on reservations, [] [] was required by the Major Crimes Act, [] 18 U.

A December 13, New York Times article about growing gang violence on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation estimated that there were 39 gangs with 5, members on that reservation alone.

As of , a high incidence of rape continued to impact Native American women and Alaskan native women. According to the Department of Justice, 1 in 3 Native women have suffered rape or attempted rape, more than twice the national rate.

Bruce Duthu, "More than 80 percent of Indian victims identify their attacker as non-Indian". Today, other than tribes successfully running casinos, many tribes struggle, as they are often located on reservations isolated from the main economic centers of the country.

The estimated 2. According to the Census , an estimated , Native Americans reside on reservation land. Strategies and Institutions in American Indian Economic Development , [] are summarized as follows:.

A major barrier to development is the lack of entrepreneurial knowledge and experience within Indian reservations.

Consequently, experiential entrepreneurship education needs to be embedded into school curricula and after-school and other community activities.

This would allow students to learn the essential elements of entrepreneurship from a young age and encourage them to apply these elements throughout life".

Some scholars argue that the existing theories and practices of economic development are not suitable for Native American communities—given the lifestyle, economic, and cultural differences, as well as the unique history of Native American-U.

The federal government fails to consider place-based issues of American Indian poverty by generalizing the demographic. Native land that is owned by individual Native Americans sometimes cannot be developed because of fractionalization.

Fractionalization occurs when a landowner dies, and their land is inherited by their children, but not subdivided.

This means that one parcel might be owned by 50 different individuals. A majority of those holding interest must agree to any proposal to develop the land, and establishing this consent is time-consuming, cumbersome, and sometimes impossible.

Another landownership issue on reservations is checkerboarding, where Tribal land is interspersed with land owned by the federal government on behalf of Natives, individually owned plots, and land owned by non-Native individuals.

This prevents Tribal governments from securing plots of land large enough for economic development or agricultural uses. This bars Native Americans from getting loans, as there is nothing that a bank can collect if the loan is not paid.

Past efforts to encourage landownership such as the Dawes Act resulted in a net loss of Tribal land. After they were familiarized with their smallholder status , Native American landowners were lifted of trust restrictions and their land would get transferred back to them, contingent on a transactional fee to the federal government.

They claim that because of this history, property rights are foreign to Natives and have no place in the modern reservation system.

Those in favor of property rights cite examples of tribes negotiating with colonial communities or other tribes about fishing and hunting rights in an area.

State-level efforts such as the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act were attempts to contain tribal land in Native American hands.

However, more bureaucratic decisions only expanded the size of the bureaucracy. The knowledge disconnect between the decision-making bureaucracy and Native American stakeholders resulted in ineffective development efforts.

Traditional Native American entrepreneurship does not prioritize profit maximization, rather, business transactions must have align with their social and cultural values.

Often, bureaucratic overseers of development are far removed from Native American communities, and lack the knowledge and understanding to develop plans or make resource allocation decisions.

Such incidences include fabricated reports that exaggerate results. While Native American urban poverty is attributed to hiring and workplace discrimination in a heterogeneous setting, [] reservation and trust land poverty rates are endogenous to deserted opportunities in isolated regions.

Historical trauma is described as collective emotional and psychological damage throughout a person's lifetime and across multiple generations.

American Indian youth have higher rates of substance and alcohol abuse deaths than the general population.

The culture of Pre-Columbian North America is usually defined by the concept of the culture area, namely a geographical region where shared cultural traits occur.

The northwest culture area, for example shared common traits such as salmon fishing, woodworking, and large villages or towns and a hierarchical social structure.

Though cultural features, language, clothing, and customs vary enormously from one tribe to another, there are certain elements which are encountered frequently and shared by many tribes.

Early European American scholars described the Native Americans as having a society dominated by clans. European colonization of the Americas had a major impact on Native American culture through what is known as the Columbian exchange.

The Columbian exchange , also known as the Columbian interchange , was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, following Christopher Columbus 's voyage.

The impact of the Columbian exchange was not entirely negative however. For example, the re-introduction of the horse to North America allowed the Plains Indian to revolutionize their way of life by making hunting, trading, and warfare far more effective, and to greatly improve their ability to transport possessions and move their settlements.

The Great Plains tribes were still hunting the bison when they first encountered the Europeans. The Spanish reintroduction of the horse to North America in the 17th century and Native Americans' learning to use them greatly altered the Native Americans' culture, including changing the way in which they hunted large game.

Horses became such a valuable, central element of Native lives that they were counted as a measure of wealth.

In the early years, as these native peoples encountered European explorers and settlers and engaged in trade, they exchanged food, crafts, and furs for blankets, iron and steel implements, horses, trinkets, firearms, and alcoholic beverages.

Uto-Aztecan has the most speakers 1. Southwest and northern Mexico with one outlier in the Plains. Several families consist of only 2 or 3 languages.

Demonstrating genetic relationships has proved difficult due to the great linguistic diversity present in North America.

Two large super- family proposals, Penutian and Hokan , look particularly promising. However, even after decades of research, a large number of families remain.

A number of English words have been derived from Native American languages. To counteract a shift to English, some Native American tribes have initiated language immersion schools for children, where a native Indian language is the medium of instruction.

For example, the Cherokee Nation initiated a year language preservation plan that involved raising new fluent speakers of the Cherokee language from childhood on up through school immersion programs as well as a collaborative community effort to continue to use the language at home.

There is also a Cherokee language immersion school in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, that educates students from pre-school through eighth grade.

Historical diets of Native Americans differed dramatically region to region. Different peoples might have relayed more heavily of agriculture, horticulture, hunting, fishing, or gathering of wild plants and fungi.

Tribes developed diets best suited for their environments. Coastal peoples relied more heavily on sea mammals, fish, and fish eggs, while inland peoples hunted caribou and moose.

In the Eastern Woodlands , early peoples independently invented agricultural and by BCE developed the crops of the Eastern Agricultural Complex , which include squash Cucurbita pepo ssp.

The Sonoran desert region including parts of Arizona and California , part of a region known as Aridoamerica , relied heavily on the tepary bean Phaseolus acutifolius as a staple crop.

This and other desert crops, mesquite bead pods, tunas prickly pear fruit , cholla buds, saguaro cactus fruit, and acorns are being actively promoted today by Tohono O'odham Community Action.

They filled storehouses with grain as protection against the area's frequent droughts. Maize or corn , first cultivated in what is now Mexico was traded north into Aridoamerica and Oasisamerica , southwest.

Native farmers practiced polycropping maize, beans, and squash; these crops are known as the Three Sisters.

The beans would replace the nitrogen , which the maize leached from the ground, as well as using corn stalks for support for climbing.

The agriculture gender roles of the Native Americans varied from region to region. In the Southwest area, men prepared the soil with hoes.

The women were in charge of planting , weeding , and harvesting the crops. In most other regions, the women were in charge of most agriculture, including clearing the land.

Clearing the land was an immense chore since the Native Americans rotated fields. Europeans in the eastern part of the continent observed that Native Americans cleared large areas for cropland.

Their fields in New England sometimes covered hundreds of acres. Colonists in Virginia noted thousands of acres under cultivation by Native Americans.

Early farmers commonly used tools such as the hoe , maul , and dibber. The hoe was the main tool used to till the land and prepare it for planting; then it was used for weeding.

The first versions were made out of wood and stone. When the settlers brought iron , Native Americans switched to iron hoes and hatchets.

The dibber was a digging stick, used to plant the seed. Once the plants were harvested, women prepared the produce for eating. They used the maul to grind the corn into mash.

It was cooked and eaten that way or baked as corn bread. Native American religious practices differ widely across the country. These spiritualities may accompany adherence to another faith, or can represent a person's primary religious identity.

While much Native American spiritualism exists in a tribal-cultural continuum, and as such cannot be easily separated from tribal identity itself.

Cultural religious practices of some tribes include the use of sacred herbs such as tobacco, sweetgrass or sage. Many Plains tribes have sweatlodge ceremonies, though the specifics of the ceremony vary among tribes.

Fasting, singing and prayer in the ancient languages of their people, and sometimes drumming are also common.

The Midewiwin Lodge is a medicine society inspired by the oral history and prophesies of the Ojibwa Chippewa and related tribes.

Another significant religious body among Native peoples is known as the Native American Church. It is a syncretistic church incorporating elements of Native spiritual practice from a number of different tribes as well as symbolic elements from Christianity.

Its main rite is the peyote ceremony. Prior to , traditional religious beliefs included Wakan Tanka. In the American Southwest, especially New Mexico , a syncretism between the Catholicism brought by Spanish missionaries and the native religion is common; the religious drums, chants, and dances of the Pueblo people are regularly part of Masses at Santa Fe 's Saint Francis Cathedral.

The eagle feather law Title 50 Part 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations stipulates that only individuals of certifiable Native American ancestry enrolled in a federally recognized tribe are legally authorized to obtain eagle feathers for religious or spiritual use.

The law does not allow Native Americans to give eagle feathers to non-Native Americans. Gender roles are differentiated in many Native American tribes.

Many Natives have historically defied colonial expectations of sexuality and gender, and continue to do so in contemporary life. Whether a particular tribe is predominantly matrilineal or patrilineal , often both sexes have some degree of decision-making power within the tribe.

Many Nations, such as the Haudenosaunee Five Nations and the Southeast Muskogean tribes, have matrilineal or Clan Mother systems, in which property and hereditary leadership are controlled by and passed through the maternal lines.

In Cherokee culture, women own the family property. When traditional young women marry, their husbands may join them in their mother's household.

Matrilineal structures enable young women to have assistance in childbirth and rearing, and protect them in case of conflicts between the couple.

If a couple separates or the man dies, the woman has her family to assist her. In matrilineal cultures the mother's brothers are usually the leading male figures in her children's lives; fathers have no standing in their wife and children's clan, as they still belong to their own mother's clan.

Hereditary clan chief positions pass through the mother's line and chiefs have historically been selected on recommendation of women elders, who could also disapprove of a chief.

In the patrilineal tribes, such as the Omaha , Osage , Ponca , and Lakota , hereditary leadership passes through the male line, and children are considered to belong to the father and his clan.

In patrilineal tribes, if a woman marries a non-Native, she is no longer considered part of the tribe, and her children are considered to share the ethnicity and culture of their father.

In patriarchal tribes, gender roles tend to be rigid. Men have historically hunted, traded and made war while, as life-givers, women have primary responsibility for the survival and welfare of the families and future of the tribe.

Women usually gather and cultivate plants, use plants and herbs to treat illnesses, care for the young and the elderly, make all the clothing and instruments, and process and cure meat and skins from the game.

Some mothers use cradleboards to carry an infant while working or traveling. At least several dozen tribes allowed polygyny to sisters, with procedural and economic limits.

Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota girls are encouraged to learn to ride, hunt and fight. Native American leisure time led to competitive individual and team sports.

Native American ball sports, sometimes referred to as lacrosse , stickball, or baggataway, were often used to settle disputes, rather than going to war, as a civil way to settle potential conflict.

The Choctaw called it isitoboli "Little Brother of War" ; [] the Onondaga name was dehuntshigwa'es "men hit a rounded object". There are three basic versions, classified as Great Lakes, Iroquoian, and Southern.

The game is played with one or two rackets or sticks and one ball. The object of the game is to land the ball in the opposing team's goal either a single post or net to score and to prevent the opposing team from scoring on your goal.

The game involves as few as 20 or as many as players with no height or weight restrictions and no protective gear. The disk would roll down the corridor, and players would throw wooden shafts at the moving disk.

The object of the game was to strike the disk or prevent your opponents from hitting it. Jim Thorpe , a Sauk and Fox Native American, was an all-round athlete playing football and baseball in the early 20th century.

Future President Dwight Eisenhower injured his knee while trying to tackle the young Thorpe. In a speech, Eisenhower recalled Thorpe: "Here and there, there are some people who are supremely endowed.

My memory goes back to Jim Thorpe. He never practiced in his life, and he could do anything better than any other football player I ever saw.

In the Olympics, Thorpe could run the yard dash in 10 seconds flat, the in Olympic trials for the pentathlon and the decathlon. Louis Tewanima , Hopi people , was an American two-time Olympic distance runner and silver medalist in the 10, meter run in His silver medal in remained the best U.

Tewanima also competed at the Olympics, where he finished in ninth place in the marathon. He was the only American ever to win the Olympic gold in this event.

An unknown before the Olympics, Mills finished second in the U. Olympic trials. Billy Kidd , part Abenaki from Vermont , became the first American male to medal in alpine skiing in the Olympics, taking silver at age 20 in the slalom in the Winter Olympics at Innsbruck , Austria.

Six years later at the World Championships, Kidd won the gold medal in the combined event and took the bronze medal in the slalom.

Traditional Native American music is almost entirely monophonic , but there are notable exceptions.

Native American music often includes drumming or the playing of rattles or other percussion instruments but little other instrumentation.

Flutes and whistles made of wood, cane, or bone are also played, generally by individuals, but in former times also by large ensembles as noted by Spanish conquistador de Soto.

The tuning of modern flutes is typically pentatonic. Some, such as John Trudell , have used music to comment on life in Native America. Other musicians such as R.

Carlos Nakai , Joanne Shenandoah and Robert "Tree" Cody integrate traditional sounds with modern sounds in instrumental recordings, whereas the music by artist Charles Littleleaf is derived from ancestral heritage as well as nature.

A variety of small and medium-sized recording companies offer an abundance of recent music by Native American performers young and old, ranging from pow-wow drum music to hard-driving rock-and-roll and rap.

In the International world of ballet dancing Maria Tallchief was considered America's first major prima ballerina , [] and was the first person of Native American descent to hold the rank.

The most widely practiced public musical form among Native Americans in the United States is that of the pow-wow.

At pow-wows, such as the annual Gathering of Nations in Albuquerque, New Mexico , members of drum groups sit in a circle around a large drum.

Drum groups play in unison while they sing in a native language and dancers in colorful regalia dance clockwise around the drum groups in the center.

Familiar pow-wow songs include honor songs, intertribal songs, crow-hops, sneak-up songs, grass-dances, two-steps, welcome songs, going-home songs, and war songs.

Most indigenous communities in the United States also maintain traditional songs and ceremonies, some of which are shared and practiced exclusively within the community.

The Iroquois , living around the Great Lakes and extending east and north, used strings or belts called wampum that served a dual function: the knots and beaded designs mnemonically chronicled tribal stories and legends, and further served as a medium of exchange and a unit of measure.

The keepers of the articles were seen as tribal dignitaries. Pueblo peoples crafted impressive items associated with their religious ceremonies.

Kachina dancers wore elaborately painted and decorated masks as they ritually impersonated various ancestral spirits.

Superior weaving, embroidered decorations, and rich dyes characterized the textile arts. Both turquoise and shell jewelry were created, as were formalized pictorial arts.

Navajo spirituality focused on the maintenance of a harmonious relationship with the spirit world, often achieved by ceremonial acts, usually incorporating sandpainting.

For the Navajo the sand painting is not merely a representational object, but a dynamic spiritual entity with a life of its own, which helped the patient at the centre of the ceremony re-establish a connection with the life force.

These vivid, intricate, and colorful sand creations were erased at the end of the healing ceremony. The Native American arts and crafts industry brings in more than a billion in gross sales annually.

Native American art comprises a major category in the world art collection. Native American contributions include pottery , paintings , jewellery , weavings , sculpture , basketry , and carvings.

The integrity of certain Native American artworks is protected by the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of , that prohibits representation of art as Native American when it is not the product of an enrolled Native American artist.

Attorney Gail Sheffield and others claim that this law has had "the unintended consequence of sanctioning discrimination against Native Americans whose tribal affiliation was not officially recognized".

Interracial relations between Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans is a complex issue that has been mostly neglected with "few in-depth studies on interracial relationships".

One case is that of Gonzalo Guerrero , a European from Spain , who was shipwrecked along the Yucatan Peninsula , and fathered three Mestizo children with a Mayan noblewoman.

European impact was immediate, widespread, and profound already during the early years of colonization and nationhood.

Europeans living among Native Americans were often called "white indians". They "lived in native communities for years, learned native languages fluently, attended native councils, and often fought alongside their native companions".

Early contact was often charged with tension and emotion, but also had moments of friendship, cooperation, and intimacy.

There was fear on both sides, as the different peoples realized how different their societies were.

They were suspicious of cultures which they did not understand. Blackbird, wrote in his History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan , that white settlers introduced some immoralities into Native American tribes.

Many Native Americans suffered because the Europeans introduced alcohol and the whiskey trade resulted in alcoholism among the people, who were alcohol-intolerant.

Blackbird wrote:. The Ottawas and Chippewas were quite virtuous in their primitive state, as there were no illegitimate children reported in our old traditions.

But very lately this evil came to exist among the Ottawas-so lately that the second case among the Ottawas of 'Arbor Croche' is yet living in And from that time this evil came to be quite frequent, for immorality has been introduced among these people by evil white persons who bring their vices into the tribes.

For a Native American man to marry a white woman, he had to get consent of her parents, as long as "he can prove to support her as a white woman in a good home".

In the late 19th century, three European-American middle-class women teachers at Hampton Institute married Native American men whom they had met as students.

As European-American women started working independently at missions and Indian schools in the western states, there were more opportunities for their meeting and developing relationships with Native American men.

For instance, Charles Eastman , a man of European and Lakota descent whose father sent both his sons to Dartmouth College , got his medical degree at Boston University and returned to the West to practice.

He married Elaine Goodale , whom he met in South Dakota. He was the grandson of Seth Eastman , a military officer from Maine, and a chief's daughter.

Goodale was a young European-American teacher from Massachusetts and a reformer, who was appointed as the U. They had six children together.

The majority of Native American tribes did practice some form of slavery before the European introduction of African slavery into North America, but none exploited slave labor on a large scale.

Most Native American tribes did not barter captives in the pre-colonial era, although they sometimes exchanged enslaved individuals with other tribes in peace gestures or in exchange for their own members.

Native Americans began selling war captives to Europeans rather than integrating them into their own societies as they had done before.

As the demand for labor in the West Indies grew with the cultivation of sugar cane , Europeans enslaved Native Americans for the Thirteen Colonies , and some were exported to the "sugar islands".

The British settlers, especially those in the southern colonies, purchased or captured Native Americans to use as forced labor in cultivating tobacco, rice, and indigo.

In den Vereinigten Staaten gibt es mehr als anerkannte Indianerstämme. Vollkommen sesshaft lebten die Meeresjäger der Nordwestküstenkulturen oder die Bewässerungsfeldbauern des Südwestens. Während die Monumentalkulturen zwischen Mississippi und Anden vielfach Stein und Lehm als Ausgangsmaterial benutzten, bevorzugten die waldreichen Regionen des Nordens Holz und andere organische Materialien. Neueste Artikel. Die sozialen Probleme, wie Armut, Krankheiten, Alkohol- und Drogenprobleme, das Auseinanderbrechen von familiären Strukturen, sowie die Bedrohung der Subsistenzwirtschaft durch Einschränkungen des Fisch- und Jagdrechts, dazu ökologische Probleme und die Folgen Bitcoin Konto Zwangsumsiedlungen treffen diese Gruppen pity, Reim Gewinnt for hart. Damit lag das Einkommen der städtischen Indianer ungefähr auf dem Niveau desjenigen der Afroamerikaner.

In , the film Not a Feather, but a Dot directed by Teju Prasad, was released which investigates the history, perceptions and changes in the Indian American community over the last century.

Religious Makeup of Indian-Americans [62]. Today there are many Sikh Gurudwaras, Hindu temples, Christian churches, and Buddhist and Jain temples in all 50 states.

Some have claimed that as of , the American Hindu population was around 2. Regardless, Hindus are the majority of Indian Americans.

Today, many Hindu temples , most of them built by Indian Americans, have emerged in different cities and towns in the United States. Kriya Yoga was introduced to America by Paramahansa Yogananda.

There are nearly 30 million Sikhs around the world today, and a vast majority of them live in the Indian state of Punjab.

There is also a robust and flourishing diaspora, with communities large and small all over the globe. Much of the diaspora is concentrated in the commonwealth due to migration within the British empire, yet Sikhs continue to establish themselves in various countries throughout the world.

From the time of their arrival in the late s, Sikh men and women have been making notable contributions to American society.

In , there were estimated to be between , and , Sikhs living in the United States, with largest populations living on the East and West Coasts, together with additional populations in Detroit, Chicago, and Austin.

The United States also has a number of non-Punjabi converts to Sikhism. Sikh men are typically identifiable by their unshorn beards and turbans head coverings , articles of their faith.

Adherents of Jainism first arrived in the United States in the 20th century. The most significant time of Jain immigration was in the early s.

The US has since become a center of the Jain diaspora. India, being a secular country based upon ideals of Gandhi , has always represented the causes of community of Indian Origin including both Hindus and Muslims and others.

Indian Muslims have represented and served for India's cause at all top positions when it comes to Indian American partnership.

Bollywood movie songs are always part of all kinds of every celebration and events organized by American Indian Muslims.

No India festivals go unnoticed among Hindu and Muslims communities alike such as Diwali , Holi , Baisakhi , Eid , Baqried aka Eid al-Adha or Christmas when people of Indian origin wishes each other happily and invite friends and families for dinners and parties.

In various Mosques and Islamic seminaries all across the country, common practicing American Indian Muslims play very important roles in sending their Zakat portions, charities and relief supports for everybody in India.

They are very actively working across the board helping everybody who is in need in India and in United States , primarily for all the people of Indian Origin.

American Indian Muslims constitutes almost all known denominations of muslim populations including Sunni , Shia , Deobandi , Barelvi , Sufi , Hanafi etc.

The spiritual and mystic order originating from India called, chishti Based upon Khawaja Moinuddin Chishti of Ajmer is also widely present.

Casinos and Restaurants with the name of Taj Mahal and Lal Quila and dishes like Hydrabadi biryani are examples of how Indian Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb is melting into American culture and mutually enriching each other.

Urdu language, originating from India is being taught in many universities and schools. There is a continuous exchange of writers, scholars and students benefiting and contributing to the rich culture everywhere.

Indian Muslim Americans also congregate with other American Muslims , including those from Pakistan , Nepal , Sri Lanka , Bhutan , Myanmar and Bangladesh when there are events particularly related to their faith and religious believes as the same can be applied for any other religious community, but there are prominent organizations such as the Indian Muslim Council — USA.

Saint Thomas Christians from Kerala have established their own places of worship across the United States. The website USIndian.

Thomas Christian Churches in the US. Like the terms "Asian American" or "South Asian American", the term "Indian American" is also an umbrella label applying to a variety of views, values, lifestyles, and appearances.

Although Asian-Indian Americans retain a high ethnic identity, they are known to assimilate into American culture while at the same time keeping the culture of their ancestors.

The United States is home to various associations that promote Indian languages and cultures. According to the official U.

In previous decades, Indian Americans were also variously classified as White American , the "Hindu race", and "other".

Unlike many countries, India does not allow dual citizenship. Raghuram Rajan []. In the s, a gang known as the Dotbusters specifically targeted Indian Americans in Jersey City, New Jersey with violence and harassment.

Numerous cases of religious stereotyping of American Hindus mainly of Indian origin have also been documented. Since the September 11, attacks , there have been scattered incidents of Indian Americans becoming mistaken targets for hate crimes.

In one example, a Sikh , Balbir Singh Sodhi , was murdered at a Phoenix gas station by a white supremacist.

This happened after September 11 , and the murderer claimed that his turban made him think that the victim was a Middle Eastern American. Louis , fueling the stereotype that gas stations are owned by Indians and other South Asians.

She clarified in the speech later that she was just joking, but still received some criticism for the statement later on for which she apologized again.

On April 5, , the Hindu Mandir of Minnesota was vandalized allegedly on the basis of religious discrimination. On August 11, , Senator George Allen allegedly referred to an opponent's political staffer of Indian ancestry as " macaca " and commenting, "Welcome to America, to the real world of Virginia".

In , then Delaware Senator and former U. You cannot go to a 7-Eleven or a Dunkin' Donuts unless you have a slight Indian accent.

I'm not joking. On February 22, , recent immigrants Srinivas Kuchibhotla and Alok Madasani were shot at a bar in Olathe, Kansas by Adam Purinton, a white American who mistook them for persons of Middle Eastern descent, yelling "get out of my country" and "terrorist".

Kuchibhotla died instantly while Madasani was injured, but later recovered. On December 22, , rapper Famous Dex uploaded a video post to his Instagram page in which he made racially-charged jokes at the expense of an elderly Indian American Hindu cashier at a convenience store in Los Angeles he was frequenting with a friend.

In , the Department of Homeland Security estimated that there were one hundred thousand , Indian unauthorized immigrants ; they are the sixth largest nationality tied with Koreans of illegal immigrants behind Mexico , El Salvador , Guatemala , Honduras , and the Philippines.

Indians are among the largest ethnic groups legally immigrating to the United States. The immigration of Indians has taken place in several waves since the first Indian came to the United States in the s.

Another significant wave followed in the s which mainly included students and professionals. The elimination of immigration quotas in spurred successively larger waves of immigrants in the late s and early s.

With the technology boom of the s, the largest influx of Indians arrived between and This latter group has also caused surge in the application for various immigration benefits including applications for green card.

This has resulted in long waiting periods for people born in India from receiving these benefits. As of , over , Indians were on the visa wait list, third only to Mexico and The Philippines.

Conflicting reports suggested that the students were deported because of the controversies surrounding the above-mentioned two universities.

However, another report suggested that the students were deported as they had provided conflicting information at the time of their arrival in US to what was mentioned in their visa application.

Following the incident, the Indian government asked the US government to honour the visas given by its embassies and consulates. Bobby Jindal was the 58th Governor of Louisiana and a former representative.

Representative Pramila Jayapal from Washington. Representative Raja Krishnamoorthi from Illinois. A majority tend to identify as moderates and have voted for Democrats in recent elections, in particular supporting Barack Obama in vast numbers.

Raja Krishnamoorthi who is a lawyer, engineer and community leader from Schaumburg, Illinois is seeking the Democratic nomination in Illinois's 8th congressional district for the United States House of Representatives.

If elected, she will be the first Indian American woman elected to the state legislature in New York history. Census Bureau definition of Asians refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Indian American. Not to be confused with Native Americans in the United States.

Americans of Indian ancestry. See also: Asian immigration to the United States. See also: Indians in the New York City metropolitan region.

See also: Contribution of Indian diaspora and Indianisation. Norah Jones is an American singer, songwriter, and actress.

Indian religions in US. Gurdwara Sahib of San Jose. Further information: Hinduism in the United States.

Further information: Sikhism in the United States. Further information: Jainism in the United States.

Islam in the United States. List of mosques in the United States. Detroit Houston. Main article: Racial classification of Indian Americans.

See also: Stereotypes of South Asians. Main article: List of Indian American media. Representative Ami Bera from California.

Representative Ro Khanna from California. Main article: List of Indian-Americans. United States portal India portal.

Census Bureau. December Retrieved March 20, Retrieved November 9, Pew Forum. July 19, Retrieved August 11, July 18, Archived from the original on September 4, Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies.

June 1, A category that remains contested in population and health research". Journal of Public Health. Indian Americans Part 1.

Retrieved September 29, Schaefer March 20, Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society. SAGE Publications. Pennsylvania State University Press.

Oxford University Press. Indians in North America, nearly 90 percent of whom where Sikhs from the state of Punjab, were also racialized through colonial gendered discourses.

University of Arkansas Press. Retrieved February 7, Retrieved March 9, Retrieved December 9, Indian Americans Hardcover Edition.

New York: Chelsea House. Retrieved December 30, Jersey City Independent. Archived from the original on June 30, Retrieved December 26, Department of Homeland Security.

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Retrieved May 4, Retrieved August 10, Census website". US Census Bureau. Retrieved March 16, US-India Friendship. Archived from the original on November 6, Archived from the original on February 19, Retrieved February 20, Archived from the original on July 25, Retrieved December 16, Retrieved November 19, January 4, Archived from the original on June 8, Retrieved July 17, Public Policy Institute of California.

January 13, Retrieved December 19, Proactive Business Consultants. June 24, Retrieved March 19, Pew Research Center.

Retrieved January 7, February 20, Archived from the original on March 28, Fact Sheet". September 8, Retrieved January 9, August 29, Retrieved December 18, April 12, Archived from the original on April 12, Google Groups.

June 11, April 8, Retrieved April 28, NBC News. Archived from the original on October 23, Retrieved November 2, By Clifford Pereira.

In Migration, technology, and transculturation: A global Perspective. Edited by Myna German and Padmini Banerjee. Center for International and Global Studies.

Lindenwood University Press. McCartney; Lorena S. Butts; Beresford Callum Historic Jamestowne. National Park Service.

Retrieved May 11, Francis C. Assisi May 16, Die Zwangsumsiedlung überlebten die Alten und Schwachen nicht, auch die Vertreibung aus der Heimat und die Hoffnungslosigkeit führte zum Bevölkerungsschwund ebenso der Verlust der alten Wirtschaftsformen und das Zerfallen der traditionellen Gemeinschaften.

Durch das Elend und die schlechte medizinische Versorgung in den Reservationen sank die Lebenserwartung und die Geburtenrate drastisch.

Die indianische Bevölkerung war durch die oben beschriebenen Gründe stark dezimiert worden. Aber wie viele Menschen lebten vor dem Eindringen der Europäer in Amerika?

Dies ist eine Frage, die niemals jemand exakt beantworten kann. Lange Zeit ging man von einer Million Menschen in Nordamerika aus.

In den sechziger Jahren des Jahrhunderts bezweifelte man die geringe Bevölkerungsdichte. Auf der Grundlage demographisch und ökologisch rekonstruierenden wie auch ideologischen Hochrechnungen kam man zu der Annahme, dass auf dem nordamerikanischen Kontinent etwa 18 Millionen Menschen gelebt haben müssen.

Aber auch diese Schätzungen lassen Schweifel aufkommen. Das liegt einfach an der Tatsache, dass wesentlich mehr Menschen auch mehr urgeschichtliche Spuren hinterlassen als bis heute gefunden wurden.

Deshalb wird die indigene Bevölkerung zwischen 2 bis 8 Millionen Menschen beziffert - dies allerdings ist wenig präzis.

Eins ist auf jeden Fall Fakt, dass die indianische Bevölkerung seit der Jahrhundertwende wieder zunimmt. Bessere Lebensbedingungen und der gestiegene Lebensmut führten zur Erhöhung der Geburtenzahlen und einer geringeren Sterblichkeit.

Auch werden Personen dazugerechnet, die durch Identitätswanderung Indianer wurden. Wer nun als Indianer gerechnet wird, ist in der Einführung beschrieben und wird hier nochmals wieder gegeben.

Diese Frage ist nicht einfach zu beantworten. Wenn man wie ein Indianer lebt, wohnt, spricht und glaubt wie die Ahnen, ist man noch nicht eindeutig Indianer.

Jedoch hat jeder Stamm noch seine eigene Definition. Für die US-Zensusbehörde ist Indianer, der es sein will. Der Wille ist fast genauso wichtig, wie die ethnische Abstammung.

Nicht alle Stämme werden von der Bundesregierung anerkannt. Die, die in der Kolonialzeit mit den Briten Verträge abschlossen, erhielten diese Anerkennung nicht.

Ebenso erging es den Stämmen, die niemals Verträge mit Bundesstaaten oder der Regierung in Washington zur Unterzeichnung brachten.

Die Mitgliedschaft zu einem Stamm, zu Gruppen von Personen ist nicht einheitlich geregelt. Jeder Stamm bestimmt selbst. Einst waren Stämme Personengruppen, die durch Verwandtsbeziehungen - Abstammung, Heirat, Adoption - miteinander verbunden waren, zusammen lebten und sich der Gruppe zugehörig füllten.

Die Richtlinien für die Abstammungskriterien waren bei den Stämmen unterschiedlich. Zahlreiche Stämme sahen Personen als Mitglied der Gemeinschaft an obwohl sie nicht von der Mutter oder vom Vater diese Mitgliedschaft geerbt hatten.

Bei anderen indianischen Volksgruppen war eine Person stammesangehörig, wenn sie durch die Abstammung auf der mütterlichen oder auf der väterlichen Linie mit dem Stamm verbunden war.

Andere Stämme machten die Stammeszugehörigkeit davon abhägig, ob die Eltern zum Zeitpunkt der Geburt auf der Reservation lebten - so z. Zehn Jahre später war es nur noch notwendig von einem Stammesmitglied abzustammen oder ein Viertel Indianerblut zu besitzen.

Dieses Kriterium praktizierte die USA ab Manche Stämme haben heute die Pratik übernommen. Nicht einmal ein Wort konnte die Gesamtheit der amerikanischen Urbevölkerung bezeichnen.

Kulturelle Ähnlichkeiten beschränkten sich auf regionale ähnliche Anpassungen an die Lebensräume. Das was alle Völker zuerst merkten, war der Verlust ihres Stammesgebietes.

Weite Teile des Landes hatten bereits im Jahrhundert den Besitzer gewechselt. Die Güter und die Annehmlichkeiten des Lebens der Eindringlinge übte auf zahlreiche Stammesmitglieder eine solche Anziehungskraft aus, dass ihnen die eigenen Traditionen fremd wurden.

Erst als die amerikanische Regierung dazu überging, die Stämme in Oklahoma im Indianerterritorium anzusiedeln, regte sich Widerstand des Vielvölkergemischs.

Es entstanden politische Strömungen, wie die Peyotereligion, Musikstile Zahlreiche panindianische Strömungen entwickelten sich in den Internatschulen, in die man ab die Kinder verschiedener Stämme gemeinsam unterbrachte, die zusammen aufwuchsen und langfristig Beziehungen entstanden aus denen im Jahrhundert die Indianerbewegung hervorging.

Sie waren es auch die erkannten, dass nur die Gemeinsamkeit gegen einen übermächtigen Gegner stark macht. Die Mehrheit der Indianer Nordamerikas sieht sich als Angehörigen eines Volkes - der Indianer - und hat dies mit unterschiedlichem Arrangement zur Kenntnis genommen.

Einst gaben die Indianer durch Rauchzeichen Nachrichten weiter - heute sind sie im Internet, benutzen das Radio als Medium, um Informationen, Musik, Unterhaltung und Kultur weiterzugeben.

Aber auch indigene Zeitungen gibt es. Abonnenten gab es in ganz Nordamerika und sogar in Europa. Wassaja - auf Deutsch "Signal" war die Zeitung von Carlos Montezuma - einem Yavapai-Indianer, der von - lebte, der das Blatt ab herausgab.

Monatlich erschien das Zeitung bis Durch die Bürgerrechtsbewegung kam die Medienarbeit der Indianer in den 60er Jahren des Jahrhunderts richtig in Schwung.

Von bis gab es etwa indianische Zeitungen.

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