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Max Rudolf Frisch (* Mai in Zürich; † 4. April ebenda) war ein Schweizer Schriftsteller und Architekt. Mit Theaterstücken wie Biedermann und die. Max Rudolf Frisch (– 4 April ) was a Swiss playwright and novelist. Frisch's works focused on problems of identity, individuality, responsibility. Max Frisch, , war zuerst Architekt, bevor er zu einem der erfolgreichsten deutschsprachigen Schriftsteller des Jahrhunderts avancierte. Alle Infos. Max Frisch ist ein Schweizer Schriftsteller, der mit Werken wie "Andorra" und "​Homo Faber" weltbekannt wird. Max Frisch, geboren am Mai in Zürich, wo er am 4. April auch verstarb, war ein Schweizer Schriftsteller, Dramatiker, Essayist und Architekt.

Max Frisch Wiki

Anonym: WikipediaArtikel Max Frisch [netherleigh.co] Schütt, Julian: Max Frisch. Biographie eines Aufstiegs. Berlin Stephan. max frisch fragebogen. Auflage. Maslowsche Bedürfnishierarchie – Wikipedia, in: netherleigh.co​wiki/Maslowsche_Bed%C3%BCrfnishierarchie. Max Frisch – Homo Faber.

The relationship between Frisch and Bachmann was intense, but not free of tensions. Frisch remained true to his habit of sexual infidelity, but reacted with intense jealousy when his partner demanded the right to behave in much the same way.

Gantenbein works through the ending of a marriage with a complicated succession of "what if? The writer tests alternative narratives "like clothes", and comes to the conclusion that none of the tested scenarios leads to an entirely "fair" outcome.

Frisch himself wrote of Gantenbein that his purpose was "to show the reality of an individual by having him appear as a blank patch outlined by the sum of fictional entities congruent with his personality.

The story is not told as if an individual could be identified by his factual behaviour; let him betray himself in his fictions.

Frisch was disappointed that his commercially very successful plays Biedermann und die Brandstifter and Andorra had both been, in his view, widely misunderstood.

His answer was to move away from the play as a form of parable , in favour of a new form of expression which he termed " Dramaturgy of Permutation " "Dramaturgie der Permutation" , a form which he had introduced with Gantenbein and which he now progressed with Biographie , written in its original version in At the centre of the play is a behavioural scientist who is given the chance to live his life again, and finds himself unable to take any key decisions differently the second time round.

The Swiss premier of the play was to have been directed by Rudolf Noelte , but Frisch and Noelte fell out in the Autumn of , a week before the scheduled first performance, which led to the Zürich opening being postponed for several months.

In the end the play opened in the Zürich Playhouse in February , the performances being directed by Leopold Lindtberg. Lindtberg was a long established and well regarded theatre director, but his production of Biografie: Ein Spiel neither impressed the critics nor delighted theatre audiences.

Frisch ended up deciding that he had been expecting more from the audience than he should have expected them to bring to the theatrical experience.

After this latest disappointment it would be another eleven years before Frisch returned to theatrical writing.

He was 51 and she was 28 years younger. In they moved into an apartment together in Rome, and in autumn they relocated to Switzerland, setting up home together in an extensively modernised cottage in Berzona , Ticino.

This is fantastic countryside" [17] [18] As a "social experiment" they also, in , temporarily occupied a second home in an apartment block in Aussersihl , a residential quarter of down-town Zürich known, then as now, for its high levels of recorded crime and delinquency, but they quickly swapped this for an apartment in Küsnacht , close to the lake shore.

Frisch and Oellers were married at the end of Marianne Oellers accompanied her future husband on numerous foreign trips. In order to try to form an independent assessment of "life behind the Iron Curtain " they then, in , toured the Soviet Union.

They returned two years later to attend a "Writers' Congress" at which they met Christa and Gerhard Wolf , leading authors in what was then East Germany , with whom they established lasting friendships.

After they married, Frisch and his young wife continued to travel extensively, visiting Japan in and undertaking extended stays in the United States.

Many impressions of these visits are published in Frisch's Tagebuch covering the period — In , after returning from the US, the couple took a second apartment in the Friedenau quarter of West Berlin , and this soon became the place where they spent most of their time.

During the period —79 Frisch was able to participate increasingly in the intellectual life of the place.

Living away from his homeland intensified his negative attitude to Switzerland, which had already been apparent in William Tell for Schools Wilhelm Tell für die Schule and which reappears in his Little service book Dienstbüchlein , in which he reflects on his time in the Swiss army some 30 years earlier.

More negativity about Switzerland was on show in January when he delivered a speech titled "Switzerland as a homeland? Although he nurtured no political ambitions on his own account, Frisch became increasingly attracted to the ideas of social democratic politics.

He also became friendly with Helmut Schmidt who had recently succeeded the Berlin—born Willy Brandt as Chancellor of Germany and was already becoming something of a respected elder statesman for the country's moderate left and, as a former Defence Minister , a target of opprobrium for some on the SPD 's im moderate left.

In October , slightly improbably, the Swiss dramatist Frisch accompanied Chancellor Schmidt on what for them both was their first visit to China, [19] as part of an official West German delegation.

This happened in the village of Montauk on Long Island , and Montauk was the title the author gave to an autobiographical novel that appeared in The book centred on his love life, including both his own marriage with Marianne Oellers-Frisch and an affair that she had been having with the American writer Donald Barthelme.

There followed a very public dispute between Frisch and his wife over where to draw the line between private and public life, and the two became increasingly estranged, divorcing in In , Frisch survived serious health problems, and the next year was actively involved in setting up the Max Frisch Foundation Max-Frisch-Stiftung , established in October , and to which he entrusted the administration of his estate.

The foundation's archive is kept at the ETH Zurich , and has been publicly accessible since Old age and the transience of life now came increasingly to the fore in Frisch's work.

In he began work on the play Triptychon , although it was not ready to be performed for another three years. The word triptych is more usually applied to paintings, and the play is set in three triptych-like sections in which many of the key characters are notionally dead.

The piece was first unveiled as a radio play in April , receiving its stage premier in Lausanne six months later. The play was rejected for performance in Frankfurt am Main where it was deemed too apolitical.

The Austrian premier in Vienna at the Burgtheater was seen by Frisch as a success, although the audience reaction to the complexity of the work's unconventional structure was still a little cautious.

By now Frisch had become a respected and from time to time honoured writer in the United States. The story concerns a retired industrialist suffering from the decline in his mental faculties and the loss of the camaraderie which he used to enjoy with colleagues.

Frisch was able, from his own experience of approaching old age, to bring a compelling authenticity to the piece, although he rejected attempts to play up its autobiographical aspects.

In Frisch returned to Zürich, where he would live for the rest of his life. In he began a relationship with his final life partner, Karen Pilliod.

After Frisch's death Pilliod let it be known that between and Frisch had also had an affair with her mother, Madeleine Seigner-Besson.

Frisch now arranged his funeral, but he also took time to engage in discussion about the abolition of the army , and published a piece in the form of a dialogue on the subject titled Switzerland without an Army?

A Palaver Schweiz ohne Armee? Frisch died on 4 April while in the middle of preparing for his 80th birthday. His friends Peter Bichsel and Michel Seigner spoke at the ceremony.

Karin Pilliod also read a short address, but there was no speech from any church minister. Frisch was an agnostic who found religious beliefs superfluous.

A tablet on the wall of the cemetery at Berzona commemorates him. The diary became a very characteristic prose form for Frisch. The diaries published by Frisch were closer to the literary "structured consciousness" narratives associated with Joyce and Döblin , providing an acceptable alternative but effective method for Frisch to communicate real-world truths.

Unlike his earlier works, output in diary form could more directly reflect the author's own positions. In this respect the work influenced Frisch's own future prose works.

He published two further literary diaries covering the periods — and — The typescript for a further diary, started in , was discovered only in among the papers of Frisch's secretary.

Because of its rather fragmentary nature Frisch's Diary 3 Tagebuch 3 was described by the publisher as a draft work by Frisch: it was edited and provided with an extensive commentary by Peter von Matt , chairman of the Max Frisch Foundation.

At the same time several of his novels such as I'm Not Stiller , Homo Faber as well as the narrative work Montauk take the form of diaries created by their respective protagonists.

Frisch himself took the view that the diary offered the prose format that corresponded with his natural approach to prose writing, something that he could "no more change than the shape of his nose".

Frisch's friend and fellow-writer, Friedrich Dürrenmatt , explained that in I'm Not Stiller the "diary-narrative" approach enabled the author to participate as a character in his own novel without embarrassment.

More specifically, in the character of James Larkin White, the American who in reality is indistinguishable from Stiller himself, but who nevertheless vigorously denies being the same man, embodies the author, who in his work cannot fail to identify the character as himself, but is nevertheless required by the literary requirements of the narrative to conceal the fact.

Rolf Keiser points out that the diary format enables Frisch most forcefully to demonstrate his familiar theme that thoughts are always based on one specific standpoint and its context; and that it can never be possible to present a comprehensive view of the world, nor even to define a single life, using language alone.

Frisch's first public success was as a writer for theatre, and later in his life he himself often stressed that he was in the first place a creature of the theatre.

Nevertheless, the diaries, and even more than these, the novels and the longer narrative works are among his most important literary creations.

In his final decades Frisch tended to move away from drama and concentrate on prose narratives. He himself is on record with the opinion that the subjective requirements of story telling suited him better than the greater level of objectivity required by theatre work.

His first literary works, up till , all employed prose formats. All three of the substantive works are autobiographical and all three centre round the dilemma of a young author torn between bourgeois respectability and "artistic" life style, exhibiting on behalf of the protagonists differing outcomes to what Frisch saw as his own dilemma.

In this respect Homo Faber and Stiller offer complementary situations. If Stiller had rejected the stipulations set out by others, he would have arrived at the position of Walter Faber, the ultra-rationalist protagonist of Homo Faber.

Instead of baldly asserting "I am not Stiller " the full title of Gantebein uses the German "Conjunctive" subjunctive to give a title along the lines "My name represents Gantenbein ".

The protagonist's aspiration has moved on from the search for a fixed identity to a less binary approach, trying to find a midpoint identity, testing out biographical and historic scenarios.

Again, the three later prose works Montauk , Man in the Holocene Der Mensch erscheint im Holozän , and Bluebeard Blaubart , are frequently grouped together by scholars.

All three are characterized by a turning towards death and a weighing up of life. Structurally they display a savage pruning of narrative complexity.

The Hamburg born critic Volker Hage identified in the three works "an underlying unity, not in the sense of a conventional trilogy The three books complement one another while each retains its individual wholeness All three books have a flavour of the balance sheet in a set of year-end financial accounts, disclosing only that which is necessary: summarized and zipped up".

Frisch's dramas up until the early s are divided by the literary commentator Manfred Jurgensen into three groups: 1 the early wartime pieces, 2 the poetic plays such as Don Juan or the Love of Geometry Don Juan oder Die Liebe zur Geometrie and 3 the dialectical pieces.

Indeed, these two are among the most successful German language plays. In an interview with Heinz Ludwig Arnold Frisch vigorously rejected their allegorical approach: "I have established only that when I apply the parable format, I am obliged to deliver a message that I actually do not have".

His late biographical plays Biography: A game Biografie: Ein Spiel and Triptychon were apolitical but they failed to match the public success of his earlier dramas.

It was only shortly before his death that Frisch returned to the stage with a more political message, with Jonas and his Veteran , a stage version of his arresting dialogue Switzerland without an army?

A Palaver. For Klaus Müller-Salget, the defining feature which most of Frisch's stage works share is their failure to present realistic situations.

Instead they are mind games that toy with time and space. For instance, The Chinese Wall Die Chinesische Mauer mixes literary and historical characters, while in the Triptychon we are invited to listen to the conversations of various dead people.

In Biography: A game Biografie: Ein Spiel a life-story is retrospectively "corrected", while Santa Cruz and Prince Öderland Graf Öderland combine aspects of a dream sequence with the features of a morality tale.

Characteristic of Frisch's stage plays are minimalist stage-sets and the application of devices such as splitting the stage in two parts, use of a " Greek chorus " and characters addressing the audience directly.

In a manner reminiscent of Brecht 's epic theatre, audience members are not expected to identify with the characters on stage, but rather to have their own thoughts and assumptions stimulated and provoked.

Unlike Brecht however, Frisch offered few insights or answers, preferring to leave the audience the freedom to provide their own interpretations.

Frisch himself acknowledged that the part of writing a new play that most fascinated him was the first draft, when the piece was undefined, and the possibilities for its development were still wide open.

The critic Hellmuth Karasek identified in Frisch's plays a mistrust of dramatic structure, apparent from the way in which Don Juan or the Love of Geometry applies theatrical method.

Frisch prioritized the unbelievable aspects of theatre and valued transparency. Unlike his friend, the dramatist Friedrich Dürrenmatt , Frisch had little appetite for theatrical effects, which might distract from doubts and sceptical insights included in a script.

For Frisch, effects came from a character being lost for words, from a moment of silence, or from a misunderstanding.

His early work is strongly influenced by the poetical imagery of Albin Zollinger , and not without a certain imitative lyricism, something from which in later life he would distance himself, dismissing it as "phoney poeticising" "falsche Poetisierung".

His later works employed a tighter, consciously unpretentious style, which Frisch himself described as "generally very colloquial" "im Allgemeinen sehr gesprochen.

The Standard German to which he was introduced as a written and literary language is naturally preferred for his written work, but not without regular appearances by dialect variations , introduced as stylistic devices.

A defining element in Frisch was an underlying scepticism as to the adequacy of language. In I'm Not Stiller his protagonist cries out, "I have no language for my reality!

Our core concern remains unwritten, and that means, quite literally, that you write around it. You adjust the settings. You provide statements that can never contain actual experience: experience itself remains beyond the reach of language Frisch adapted principals of Bertolt Brecht 's Epic theatre both for his dramas and for his prose works.

As early as he concluded a contemplative piece on the alienation effect with the observation, "One might be tempted to ascribe all these thoughts to the narrative author: the linguistic application of the alienation effect , the wilfully mischievous aspect of the prose, the uninhibited artistry which most German language readers will reject because they find it "too arty" and because it inhibits empathy and connection, sabotaging the conventional illusion that the story in the narrative really happened.

The play "Biography: A game" "Biografie: Ein Spiel" extended similar techniques to theatre audiences. Already in "Stiller" Frisch embedded, in a novel, little sub-narratives in the form of fragmentary episodic sections from his "diaries".

Frisch's literary work centre round certain core themes and motifs many of which, in various forms, recur through the entire range of the author's output.

In the Diary — Frisch spells out a central idea that runs through his subsequent work: "You shall not make for yourself any graven image, God instructs us.

That should also apply in this sense: God lives in every person, though we may not notice. That oversight is a sin that we commit and it is a sin that is almost ceaselessly committed against us — except if we love".

It is only through love that people may manifest the mutability and versatility necessary to accept one another's intrinsic inner potential.

Without love people reduce one another and the entire world down to a series of simple preformed images.

Hans Jürg Lüthi divides Frisch's work, into two categories according to how this image is treated. In the first category, the destiny of the protagonist is to live the simplistic image.

Examples include the play Andorra in which Andri, identified wrongly by the other characters as a Jew is obliged to work through the fate assigned to him by others.

Something analogous arises with the novel Homo Faber where the protagonist is effectively imprisoned by the technician's "ultra-rational" prism through which he is fated to conduct his existence.

The second category of works identified by Lüthi centres on the theme of libration from the lovelessly predetermined image. Real personal identity stands in stark contrast to this simplistic image.

For Frisch, each person possesses a unique Individualism , justified from the inner being, and which needs to be expressed and realized.

To be effective it can operate only through the individual's life, or else the individual self will be incomplete. The fear that the individual "myself" may be overlooked and the life thereby missed, was already a central theme in Frisch's early works.

A failure in the "selection of self" was likely to result in alienation of the self both from itself and from the human world more generally.

Only within the limited span of an individual human life can personal existence find a fulfilment that can exclude the individual from the endless immutability of death.

In I'm Not Stiller Frisch set out a criterion for a fulfilled life as being "that an individual be identical with himself. Otherwise he has never really existed".

Claus Reschke says that the male protagonists in Frisch's work are all similar modern Intellectual types: egocentric , indecisive, uncertain in respect of their own self-image, they often misjudge their actual situation.

Their interpersonal relationships are superficial to the point of agnosticism, which condemns them to live as isolated loners.

If they do develop some deeper relationship involving women, they lose emotional balance, becoming unreliable partners, possessive and jealous.

They repeatedly assume outdated gender roles , masking sexual insecurity behind chauvinism. All this time their relationships involving women are overshadowed by feelings of guilt.

In a relationship with a woman they look for "real life", from which they can obtain completeness and self-fulfilment, untrammelled by conflict and paralyzing repetition, and which will never lose elements of novelty and spontaneity.

Female protagonists in Frisch's work also lead back to a recurring gender-based stereotype , according to Mona Knapp.

Frisch's compositions tend to be centred on male protagonists, around which his leading female characters, virtually interchangeable, fulfil a structural and focused function.

Often they are idolised as "great" and "wonderful", superficially emancipated and stronger than the men. However, they actually tend to be driven by petty motivations: disloyalty, greed and unfeelingness.

In the author's later works the female characters become increasingly one-dimensional, without evidencing any inner ambivalence.

Often the women are reduced to the role of a simple threat to the man's identity, or the object of some infidelity, thereby catalysing the successes or failings of the male's existence, so providing the male protagonist an object for his own introspection.

For the most part, the action in the male:female relationship in a work by Frisch comes from the woman, while the man remains passive, waiting and reflective.

Superficially the woman is loved by the man, but in truth she is feared and despised. From her thoughtfully feminist perspective, Karin Struck saw Frisch's male protagonists manifesting a high level of dependency on the female characters, but the women remain strangers to them.

The men are, from the outset, focused on the ending of the relationship: they cannot love because they are preoccupied with escaping from their own failings and anxieties.

Often they conflate images of womanliness with images of death, as in Frisch's take on the Don Juan legend: "The woman reminds me of death, the more she seems to blossom and thrive".

Death is an ongoing theme in Frisch's work, but during his early and high periods it remains in the background, overshadowed by identity issues and relationship problems.

Only with his later works does Death become a core question. Frisch's second published Diary Tagebuch launches the theme. A key sentence from the Diary — published , repeated several times, is a quotation from Montaigne :"So I dissolve; and I lose myself" [62] [63] [64] The section focuses on the private and social problems of aging.

Although political demands are incorporated, social aspects remain secondary to the central concentration on the self. The Diary ' s fragmentary and hastily structured informality sustains a melancholy underlying mood.

The narrative Montauk also deals with old age. The autobiographically drawn protanonist's lack of much future throws the emphasis back onto working through the past and an urge to live for the present.

In the drama-piece, Triptychon , Death is presented not necessarily directly, but as a way of referencing life metaphorically.

Death reflects the ossification of human community, and in this way becomes a device for shaping lives. The narrative Man in the Holocene presents the dying process of an old man as a return to nature.

According to Cornelia Steffahn there is no single coherent image of death presented in Frisch's late works. Instead they describe the process of his own evolving engagement with the issue, and show the way his own attitudes developed as he himself grew older.

Along the way he works through a range of philosophical influences including Montaigne , Kierkegaard , Lars Gustafsson and even Epicurus.

Frisch described himself as a socialist but never joined the political party. In the "Blätter aus dem Brotsack" "diaries of military life" published in , he comes across as a conventional Swiss patriot , reflecting the unifying impact on Swiss society of the perceived invasion risk then emanating from Germany.

After Victory in Europe Day the threat to Swiss values and to the independence of the Swiss state diminished. Frisch now underwent a rapid transformation, evincing a committed political consciousness.

In particular, he became highly critical of attempts to divide cultural values from politics, noting in his Diary — : "He who does not engage with politics is already a partisan of the political outcome that he wishes to preserve, because he is serving the ruling party" [67] [68] Sonja Rüegg, writing in , says that Frisch's aesthetics are driven by a fundamentally anti-ideological and critical animus, formed from a recognition of the writer's status as an outsider within society.

That generates opposition to the ruling order, the privileging of individual partisanship over activity on behalf of a social class, and an emphasis on asking questions.

Frisch's social criticism was particularly sharp in respect of his Swiss homeland. In a much quoted speech that he gave when accepting the Schiller Prize he declared: "I am Swiss, not simply because I hold a Swiss passport, was born on Swiss soil etc.

With his Little service book Dienstbüchlein Frisch revisited and re-evaluated his own period of service in the nation's citizen army , and shortly before he died he went so far as to question outright the need for the army in Switzerland without an Army?

A characteristic pattern in Frisch's life was the way that periods of intense political engagement alternated with periods of retreat back to private concerns.

Bettina Jaques-Bosch saw this as a succession of slow oscillations by the author between public outspokenness and inner melancholy.

Interviewed in , Frisch acknowledged that his literary career had not been marked by some "sudden breakthrough" " In his 20s he was already having pieces published in various newspapers and journals.

As a young writer he also had work accepted by an established publishing house, the Munich based Deutschen Verlags-Anstalt , which already included a number of distinguished German-language authors on its lists.

When he decided he no longer wished to have his work published in Nazi Germany he changed publishers, joining up with Atlantis Verlag which had relocated their head office from Berlin to Zürich in response to the political changes in Germany.

In Frisch switched publishers again, this time to the arguably more mainstream publishing house then being established in Frankfurt by Peter Suhrkamp.

Frisch was still only in his early 30s when he turned to drama, and his stage work found ready acceptance at the Zürich Playhouse , at this time one of Europe's leading theatres, the quality and variety its work much enhanced by an influx of artistic talent since the mids from Germany.

Frisch's early plays, performed at Zürich, were positively reviewed and won prizes. It was only in , with Prince Öderland , that Frisch experienced his first stage-flop.

I'm Not Stiller started with a print-run that provided for sales of 3, in its first year, [77] but thanks to strong and growing reader demand it later became the first book published by Suhrkamp to top one million copies.

Apart from a few early works, most of Frisch's books and plays have been translated into around ten languages, while the most translated of all, Homo Faber , has been translated into twenty-five languages.

Frisch's name is often mentioned along with that of another great writer of his generation, Friedrich Dürrenmatt.

The scholar Hans Mayer likened them to the mythical half-twins, Castor and Pollux , as two dialectically linked "antagonists".

In Dürrenmatt took the opportunity of Frisch's 75th birthday to try and effect a reconciliation with a letter, but the letter went unanswered.

The literary journalist Heinz Ludwig Arnold quipped that Dürrenmatt, despite all his narrative work, was born to be a dramatist, while Frisch, his theatre successes notwithstanding, was born to be a writer of narratives.

In the s, by publicly challenging some contradictions and settled assumptions, both Frisch und Dürrenmatt contributed to a major revision in Switzerland's view if itself and of its history.

In Frisch published his Little service book Dienstbüchlein , and from this time — possibly from earlier — Frisch became a powerfully divisive figure in Switzerland , where in some quarters his criticisms were vigorously rejected.

Walter , and Adolf Muschg. More than a generation after that, in , when it was the turn of Swiss literature to be the special focus [86] at the Frankfurt Book Fair , the literary commentator Andreas Isenschmid identified some leading Swiss writers from his own baby-boomer generation such as Ruth Schweikert , Daniel de Roulet and Silvio Huonder in whose works he had found "a curiously familiar old tone, resonating from all directions, and often almost page by page, uncanny echoes from Max Frisch's Stiller.

The works of Frisch were also important in West Germany. Translations of Frisch's works into the languages of other formally socialist countries in the Eastern Bloc were also widely available, leading the author himself to offer the comment that in the Soviet Union his works were officially seen as presenting the "symptoms of a sick capitalist society, symptoms that would never be found where the means of production have been nationalized" [92] [93] Despite some ideologically driven official criticism of his "individualism", "negativity" and "modernism", Frisch's works were actively translated into Russian, and were featured in some reviews in the Soviet Union.

He was generally well regarded by the New York literary establishment: one commentator found him commendably free of "European arrogance".

Jürgen H. Petersen reckons that Frisch's stage work had little influence on other dramatists. And his own preferred form of the "literary diary" failed to create a new trend in literary genres.

By contrast, the novels I'm Not Stiller and Gantenbein have been widely taken up as literary models, both because of the way they home in on questions of individual identity and on account of their literary structures.

Issues of personal identity are presented not simply through description or interior insights, but through narrative contrivances. This stylistic influence can be found frequently in the works of others, such as Christa Wolf 's The Quest for Christa T.

Other similarly influenced authors are Peter Härtling and Dieter Kühn. Frisch also found himself featuring as a character in the literature of others.

That was the case in with Wolfgang Hildesheimer 's Message to Max [Frisch] about the state of things and other matters Mitteilungen an Max über den Stand der Dinge und anderes.

Adolf Muschg , purporting to address Frisch directly on the occasion of his seventieth birthday, contemplates the older man's contribution: "Your position in the history of literature, how can it be described?

You have not been, in conventional terms, an innovator… I believe you have defined an era through something both unobtrusive and fundamental: a new experimental ethos and pathos.

Your books form deep literary investigation from an act of the imagination. He is himself always at the heart of the matter.

His matter is the matter. The film director Alexander J. Seiler believes that Frisch had for the most part an "unfortunate relationship" with film, even though his literary style is often reminiscent of cinematic technique.

Seiler explains that Frisch's work was often, in the author's own words, looking for ways to highlight the "white space" between the words, which is something that can usually only be achieved using a film-set.

Already, in the Diary — there is an early sketch for a film-script, titled Harlequin. In there were plans, under the Title Zürich — Transit , to film an episode from the novel Gantenbein , but the project was halted, initially by differences between Frisch and the film director Erwin Leiser and then, it was reported, by the illness of Bernhard Wicki who was brought in to replace Leiser.

The Zürich — Transit project went ahead in the end, directed by Hilde Bechart, but only in a quarter century later, and a year after Frisch had died.

For the novels I'm Not Stiller and Homo Faber there were several film proposals, one of which involved casting the actor Anthony Quinn in Homo Faber , but none of these proposals was ever realised.

It is nevertheless interesting that several of Frisch's dramas were filmed for television adaptations. It was in this way that the first filmic adaptation of a Frisch prose work appeared in , thanks to Georg Radanowicz, and titled The Misfortune Das Unglück.

This was based on a sketch from one of Frisch's Diaries. While Frisch was still alive he had collaborated with the filmmaker Volker Schlöndorff on this production, but the critics were nevertheless underwhelmed by the result.

The prize is awarded every four years and comes with a CHF 50, payment to the winner. The th anniversary of Frisch's birth took place in and was marked by an exhibition in his home city of Zürich.

The occasion was also celebrated by an exhibition at the Munich Literature Centre which carried the suitably enigmatic tagline, "Max Frisch.

Heimweh nach der Fremde" and another exhibition at the Museo Onsernonese in Loco , close to the Ticinese cottage to which Frisch regularly retreated over several decades.

In it is intended to name a new city-square in Zürich Max-Frisch-Platz. This is part of a larger urban redevelopment scheme which is being coordinated with a major building project underway to expand Zürich Oerlikon railway station.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Swiss playwright and novelist. Further information: Max Frisch bibliography. In Suzanne M.

Bourgoin and Paula K. Byers, Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale Research, Retrieved 18 April Max Frisch.

Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, , p. In Heinz Ludwig Arnold ed. Öderland endet als Anführer einer revolutionären Freiheitsbewegung und erhält durch diese Position Macht und Verantwortung, die ihn ebenso unfrei machen, wie er es zu Beginn des Stücks war.

Das Drama wurde bei Publikum und Kritik zu einem klaren Misserfolg, es wurde vielfach als Ideologiekritik missverstanden oder als nihilistisch verurteilt.

Frisch hingegen betrachtete Graf Öderland als eines seiner bedeutendsten Werke und arbeitete es für weitere Aufführungen und um, ohne damit eine wesentlich beifälligere Rezeption zu erreichen.

In diesem Stück kehrt er zur Thematik des Widerstreits zwischen ehelichen Pflichten und intellektuellen Interessen zurück: Die Hauptfigur des Stücks ist ein parodierter Don Juan , der sich in erster Linie für geometrische Studien und das Schachspiel interessiert und Frauen daher nur einen episodischen Platz in seinem Leben einräumt.

Nachdem sein gefühlloses Verhalten zahlreiche Tote gefordert hat, verliebt er sich jedoch in eine frühere Prostituierte.

Bis zu ihrem Tod lebt er daraufhin wieder mit der Ehefrau zusammen, die er in seinem früheren Leben verlassen hatte.

Der Roman, der Elemente des Kriminalromans mit einem authentisch wirkenden, tagebuchartigen Erzählstil verbindet, wurde zu einem kommerziellen Erfolg und brachte Frisch eine breite Anerkennung als Schriftsteller ein.

Zugleich lobte die Kritik die komplexe Konstruktion und Perspektivik sowie die Verbindung von philosophischen Einsichten mit autobiografischen Erfahrungen.

Nach dessen Erscheinen zog Frisch, der während seiner Ehe zahlreiche Liebschaften pflegte, [15] die Konsequenzen, trennte sich von seiner Familie und bezog in Männedorf in einem Bauernhaus eine eigene kleine Wohnung.

Nachdem das Schreiben schon einige Jahre in Folge seine Haupteinnahmequelle gewesen war, schloss er im Januar auch sein Architekturbüro, um nun ganz als freier Schriftsteller zu arbeiten.

Ende begann Frisch mit der Arbeit an dem Roman Homo faber , der veröffentlicht wurde. Er handelt von einem Ingenieur, der mit seiner rein technisch-rationalen Weltsicht am realen Leben scheitert.

Homo faber wurde in den Schulkanon aufgenommen und zu einem von Frischs meistgelesenen Büchern. Sie führten ihn nach Italien , dann nach einer Schiffspassage über den Atlantik ein zweites Mal in die Vereinigten Staaten, nach Mexiko und Kuba und im Folgejahr nach Griechenland.

Es handelt von einem Kleinbürger, der Hausierern Unterschlupf gewährt und trotz deutlicher Anzeichen nicht dagegen einschreitet, dass diese sein Haus niederbrennen.

Erste Skizzen waren bereits unter dem Eindruck der kommunistischen Machtübernahme in der Tschechoslowakei entstanden und im Tagebuch — erschienen, hatte der Bayerische Rundfunk eine Hörspielfassung ausgestrahlt.

Frischs Absicht war es, das Selbstvertrauen des Zuschauers zu erschüttern, dass er in einer ähnlichen Gefahrensituation besonnener reagieren würde.

Als das Schweizer Publikum das Stück zunächst als reine Warnung vor dem Kommunismus auffasste, fühlte er sich missverstanden. Der Stoff lag Frisch besonders am Herzen, so dass er innerhalb von drei Jahren fünf Fassungen des Stücks schrieb, bevor es Ende zur Uraufführung kam.

Obwohl es bei Kritik und Publikum erfolgreich war, brachte das Stück Frisch insbesondere nach der Uraufführung in den USA auch den Vorwurf eines zu leichtfertigen Umgangs mit der jüngsten historischen Wirklichkeit ein.

In der Tatsache, dass der vorurteilsbehaftete Umgang mit anderen in Andorra als allgemeiner menschlicher Fehler dargestellt ist, sahen einige Deutsche eine Relativierung der eigenen Schuld.

Obwohl Bachmann einen schriftlichen Heiratsantrag ablehnte, folgte Frisch ihr nach Rom , wo er bis seinen Lebensmittelpunkt behielt.

Die Beziehung gilt als intensiv, jedoch auch als für beide Seiten problematisch: Frisch, der seine sexuelle Untreue selbst stets offen eingestand, reagierte mit starker Eifersucht auf seine neue Partnerin, die für sich die gleichen Rechte einforderte.

Im Zentrum des Stücks steht ein Verhaltensforscher, der die Möglichkeit erhält, sein Leben noch einmal zu führen, und dabei letztlich keine wesentlich anderen Entscheidungen treffen kann.

Aber auch die zur Aufführung gebrachte Umsetzung unter Leopold Lindtberg stellte weder den Autor noch Kritik und Publikum zufrieden.

Frisch hatte die Zuschauer aufrufen wollen, die Möglichkeiten zur Veränderung im Bewusstsein ihrer Beschränktheit voll auszunutzen, und empfand das Stück auf der Bühne letztlich selbst als zu fatalistisch.

Erst elf Jahre nach dieser erneuten Enttäuschung kehrte Frisch ans Theater zurück. Ende heirateten die beiden. Anlässlich eines Schriftstellerkongresses kehrten sie zwei Jahre später dorthin zurück und trafen unter anderem die DDR -Schriftsteller Christa und Gerhard Wolf , mit denen sie von nun an eine Freundschaft verband.

Viele Eindrücke dieser Reisen sind im Tagebuch — wiedergegeben. Nach der Rückkehr aus den USA nahm das Ehepaar Frisch eine Zweitwohnung in Berlin im Ortsteil Friedenau , die zunehmend zum Lebensmittelpunkt wurde und —79 einen intensiven und anregenden Kontakt zu den dortigen Intellektuellen ermöglichte.

Obwohl er keine politischen Ambitionen hatte, hegte Frisch Sympathien für Ideen der Sozialdemokratie. Anlässlich der Veröffentlichung kam es zwischen den Eheleuten zu einem offenen Streit über das Verhältnis von Öffentlichem und Privatem und in der Folge zu einer zunehmenden Entfremdung.

Nachdem Frisch ernsthafte gesundheitliche Probleme durchlebt hatte, wurde im Oktober unter seiner Mitwirkung die Max-Frisch-Stiftung gegründet, die mit der Verwaltung seines Nachlasses beauftragt wurde.

Alter und Vergänglichkeit rückten nun zunehmend ins Zentrum von Frischs Werk. Eine Aufführung in Frankfurt scheiterte am Widerstand des dortigen Ensembles, das das Stück als zu unpolitisch ablehnte.

Die Premiere am Burgtheater in Wien betrachtete Frisch als gelungen, das Publikum reagierte jedoch zurückhaltend auf das komplex konstruierte Werk.

Der Text berichtet von einem pensionierten Industriellen, der unter dem Verlust eigener geistiger Fähigkeiten und dem Schwund mitmenschlicher Beziehungen leidet.

Frisch bemühte sich in diesem Text um Authentizität, wehrte sich jedoch gegen eine allzu autobiografische Deutung. Nach Abschluss der erschienenen Arbeit erlebte Frisch eine Schreibhemmung, die er erst im Herbst mit dem Prosatext Blaubart überwand.

Im selben Jahr erfuhr er im Rahmen der Fichenaffäre , dass er seit seiner Teilnahme am internationalen Friedenskongress wie viele andere Schweizer Bürger von den Behörden bespitzelt worden war.

August erhielt er zensurierten Zugang zu den behördlichen Aufzeichnungen und verfasste vor Ende dazu den Kommentar Ignoranz als Staatsschutz?

Der Text wurde erst bei Suhrkamp als Buch veröffentlicht. Frisch regelte die Umstände seiner Bestattung, engagierte sich jedoch noch im Rahmen der Diskussion über die Abschaffung der Schweizer Armee und veröffentlichte den Prosatext Schweiz ohne Armee?

Ein Palaver sowie eine Bühnenfassung davon, Jonas und sein Veteran. Max Frisch starb am 4. April , mitten in den Vorbereitungen zu seinem Die Trauerfeier fand am 9.

April in St. Peter statt. Karin Pilliod verlas eine Erklärung, es kam aber kein Geistlicher zu Wort. Frisch war ein Agnostiker , der jedes Glaubensbekenntnis für überflüssig befand.

Das Tagebuch gilt als die für Frisch typische Prosaform. Anders als seine früheren Arbeiten konnten die literarischen Ergebnisse in Tagebuchform vor ihrem Autor bestehen.

Frisch fand so zu der Form, die sein weiteres Prosawerk bestimmte. Er veröffentlichte zwei weitere literarische Tagebücher aus den Zeiträumen — bzw.

Das Typoskript für ein drittes, begonnenes Tagebuch wurde in den Unterlagen von Frischs Sekretärin entdeckt.

Gleichzeitig sind die Romane Stiller und Homo faber sowie die Erzählung Montauk als Tagebuch ihres jeweiligen Protagonisten angelegt; Sybille Heidenreich weist darauf hin, dass auch die offene Erzählform des Romans Mein Name sei Gantenbein eng an die Tagebuchform angelehnt ist.

Frisch selbst vertrat die Auffassung, dass die Tagebuchform die einzige ihm entsprechende Prosaform sei und er sie daher ebenso wenig wählen könne wie die Form seiner Nase.

Rolf Kieser weist darauf hin, dass in der Tagebuchform am deutlichsten Frischs Auffassung Rechnung getragen wird, dass Denken immer nur für einen bestimmten Standpunkt und Kontext stimme und es unmöglich sei, mit Sprache ein geschlossenes Bild der Welt oder auch nur eines einzelnen Lebens zu entwerfen.

Obwohl Max Frisch seine ersten Erfolge im Theater feierte und auch selbst später oft betonte, dass er eigentlich vom Theater komme, zählten neben dem Tagebuch vor allem der Roman und die längere Erzählung zu seinen wichtigsten literarischen Formen.

Insbesondere in späteren Jahren wandte sich Frisch von der Bühne ab und der Prosa zu. Nach eigenen Angaben fühlte er sich unter den subjektiven Anforderungen des Erzählens wohler als unter den objektiven Anforderungen, die die Arbeit am Theater an ihn richtete.

Frischs Prosawerk lässt sich grob in drei Schaffensphasen einteilen. Alle drei sind autobiografisch geprägt, alle kreisen um die Entscheidung des jungen Autors zwischen einer bürgerlichen und einer Künstlerexistenz und lassen ihre Protagonisten unterschiedliche Wege aus Frischs persönlichem Dilemma finden: in der Entwicklung zur Autonomie im Erstling, der an einen klassischen Bildungsroman erinnert, im Scheitern des Lebensentwurfs in seiner Fortsetzung, in der Absage an künstlerische Verwirklichung in der Erzählung.

Gemein ist den drei Romanen die Thematik der Identität und des Verhältnisses zwischen den Geschlechtern. Dabei nimmt Homo faber eine Komplementärposition zu Stiller ein.

Hatte Stiller sich gegen die Festlegungen durch andere gewehrt, legt sich Walter Faber, der Protagonist aus Homo faber , selbst auf die Identität des rationalen Technikers fest.

Inhaltlich zeichnen sich alle drei Texte durch eine thematische Hinwendung zum Tod, einer Lebensbilanz aus. Formal stehen sie unter dem Motto einer Reduktion von Sprache und Handlungselementen.

Die drei Bücher ergänzen sich und sind doch selbständige Einheiten. Sie gehören zu den erfolgreichsten deutschsprachigen Theaterstücken.

Ein Palaver , noch einmal zur politischen Botschaft auf der Bühne zurück. Für Klaus Müller-Salget war den meisten Bühnenstücken Frischs gemein, dass sie auf der Bühne keine realistischen Situationen darstellen, sondern zeit- und raumübergreifende Gedankenspiele seien.

Typisch seien karge, reduzierte Bühnenbilder, Brechungen wie zweigeteilte Bühnen, ein Chor oder die direkte Ansprache des Publikums.

Immer wieder vergegenwärtige das Stück dem Publikum, dass es Theater sei, auf einer Bühne stattfinde. Im Stile von Brechts epischem Theater solle sich der Zuschauer nicht mit dem Geschehen auf der Bühne identifizieren, sondern durch das Dargestellte zu eigenen Gedanken angeregt werden.

In Abweichung zu Brecht wolle Frisch dem Zuschauer aber keine vorgegebene Einsicht vermitteln, sondern lasse ihm die Freiheit einer eigenen Interpretation.

Frisch selbst bekannte, dass ihn die Theaterarbeit in den ersten Proben am meisten fasziniere, wenn ein Stück noch nicht festgelegt, sondern in seinen Möglichkeiten offen sei.

Frisch führe die Unglaubwürdigkeit des Theaters vor, er strebe seine Durchschaubarkeit an. Dabei herrsche keine Lust am theatralischen Effekt wie etwa bei Dürrenmatt vor, die Effekte brächen sich an Zweifeln und skeptischen Einsichten.

Wirkungen entstünden aus Wortlosigkeit, Verstummen oder Missverständnissen. Wo Dürrenmatts Stücke auf die schlimmstmögliche Wendung zusteuerten, endeten Frischs Dramen oft mit einer dramaturgischen Rückkehr zu ihrem Anfang; das Schicksal seiner Protagonisten sei es, kein Schicksal zu haben.

Frischs Stil wandelte sich in verschiedenen Phasen seines Werks. Dennoch wurde in seinen Werken das Hochdeutsch , das er vor allem als Schrift- und Literatursprache kennengelernt hatte, die bevorzugte Ausdrucksform, wobei er aber immer wieder mundartliche Wendungen als Stilmittel einsetzte.

Frisch war geprägt durch eine grundlegende Sprachskepsis. Man umstellt es. Man gibt Aussagen, die nie unser eigentliches Erlebnis enthalten, das unsagbar bleibt; […] und das eigentliche, das Unsagbare erscheint bestenfalls als Spannung zwischen diesen Aussagen.

Frisch übertrug Prinzipien des epischen Theaters Bertolt Brechts sowohl in sein dramatisches als auch sein erzählendes Werk.

Bereits in Stiller übertrug Frisch mit den eingebetteten Geschichten die Form des fragmentarischen , episodenhaften Erzählens seines literarischen Tagebuchs in einen Roman.

Das literarische Werk Max Frischs ist von einigen grundlegenden Themen und Motiven geprägt, die entweder im Zentrum einer bestimmten Schaffensperiode stehen oder durch das gesamte Werk hindurch immer wieder aufgegriffen und variiert werden.

Nur in der Liebe sei der Mensch bereit, sein Gegenüber mit all seiner Wandelbarkeit, den ihm innewohnenden Möglichkeiten anzunehmen.

Ein zum Klischee erstarrtes Bild werde zur Versündigung des Menschen gegen sich selbst und gegen den anderen. Die zweite Kategorie thematisiere die Befreiung vom Bildnis, etwa in Stiller oder Mein Name sei Gantenbein , in denen sich die Hauptpersonen neue Identitäten entwerfen, um vorgefertigten Bildnissen zu entkommen.

Im Gegensatz zum Fremdbild steht die menschliche Identität. Für Frisch besitzt jeder Mensch seine einzigartige Individualität , die ihre Berechtigung aus sich selbst beziehe und verwirklicht werden müsse.

Die Furcht, das Ich zu verpassen und damit das Leben zu verfehlen, hat bereits in Frischs Frühwerk eine zentrale Stellung.

Eine misslungene Selbstwahl führe zu einer Entfremdung des Menschen von sich selbst und von der Welt. Nur in der begrenzten Frist eines wirklichen Lebens könne sich die menschliche Existenz erfüllen, da ihre Erlösung im Zustand der endlosen Unveränderbarkeit des Todes ausgeschlossen sei.

Andernfalls ist er nie gewesen!

Unlike Brecht however, Frisch offered few insights or answers, preferring to leave the audience the freedom to provide their own interpretations. Critical reaction to the new impetus that Frisch's Tagebücher was giving to the genre of the "literary diary" was positive: there was a mention of Frisch having found a new way to connect with wider trends in European literature "Anschluss ans europäische Niveau". In: Gesammelte Werke in zeitlicher Folge "Collected works chronologically sequenced". In Dürrenmatt took the opportunity of Frisch's 75th birthday to try and effect a reconciliation with a letter, but the Und Ohne Spielen Anmeldung Kostenlos De went unanswered. You have not been, in conventional terms, an innovator… I believe you have defined an era through something both unobtrusive and fundamental: a new experimental ethos and pathos. Another product of this extensive tour Max Frisch Wiki Frisch's first novel, Jürg Reinhartwhich appeared in Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Mainpp. Im gleichen Jahr zog sie ihre Zustimmung zu einer bereits beim Standesamt angemeldeten Heirat zurück, weil sie nicht aus Mitleid wegen ihrer unsicheren Situation als deutsche Jüdin in der Schweiz geheiratet werden wollte. Nach Abschluss der erschienenen Arbeit erlebte Frisch eine Schreibhemmung, die er erst im Herbst mit dem Prosatext Blaubart überwand. A key sentence from the Diary — publishedrepeated several times, is a quotation from Montaigne :"So I dissolve; and I lose myself" [62] [63] [64] The section focuses on the private and social problems of aging. Auch Bertolt Brecht lernte Frisch kennen und tauschte sich fortan mit ihm in zahlreichen künstlerischen Fragen aus. Jürgen H. Frisch was already a regular visitor at the Zürich Playhouse Schauspielhaus while still a charming Holstein Kiel Kaiserslautern the. Their interpersonal relationships are superficial to the point of agnosticism, which condemns them to live as isolated loners. Immer wieder fallen sie in überkommene Geschlechterrollen und article source ihre sexuellen Unsicherheiten durch Chauvinismus. Ihm wurde kurz nachgesagt, dass er im Einfluss der konservativ eingestellten Mitglieder der Universität von Zürich stand. Obwohl Bachmann einen schriftlichen Heiratsantrag ablehnte, folgte Frisch ihr nach Romwo er bis seinen Lebensmittelpunkt behielt. There he met professors Max Frisch Wiki gave him contact with the worlds of publishing and journalism, and was influenced by Robert Faesi — and Theophil Spoerri —both writers and professors at the university. März , S. 10, hier: netherleigh.co:Frank Wedekind Max Frisch und Friedrich Dürrenmatt in der Kronenhalle in Zürich (im. netherleigh.co:RIAN_archive__Mikhail Atoll, ; netherleigh.co:Castle_netherleigh.co Max Frisch und​. Foto von GFDL, netherleigh.co:Alter_Platz,​_Klagenfurt. netherleigh.co:Ludwig Wittgenstein_(cropped).jpg Max Frisch. Anonym: WikipediaArtikel Max Frisch [netherleigh.co] Schütt, Julian: Max Frisch. Biographie eines Aufstiegs. Berlin Stephan. Auflage. Maslowsche Bedürfnishierarchie – Wikipedia, in: netherleigh.co​wiki/Maslowsche_Bed%C3%BCrfnishierarchie. Max Frisch – Homo Faber.

Max Frisch starb am 4. April , mitten in den Vorbereitungen zu seinem Die Trauerfeier fand am 9. April in St. Peter statt.

Karin Pilliod verlas eine Erklärung, es kam aber kein Geistlicher zu Wort. Frisch war ein Agnostiker , der jedes Glaubensbekenntnis für überflüssig befand.

Das Tagebuch gilt als die für Frisch typische Prosaform. Anders als seine früheren Arbeiten konnten die literarischen Ergebnisse in Tagebuchform vor ihrem Autor bestehen.

Frisch fand so zu der Form, die sein weiteres Prosawerk bestimmte. Er veröffentlichte zwei weitere literarische Tagebücher aus den Zeiträumen — bzw.

Das Typoskript für ein drittes, begonnenes Tagebuch wurde in den Unterlagen von Frischs Sekretärin entdeckt. Gleichzeitig sind die Romane Stiller und Homo faber sowie die Erzählung Montauk als Tagebuch ihres jeweiligen Protagonisten angelegt; Sybille Heidenreich weist darauf hin, dass auch die offene Erzählform des Romans Mein Name sei Gantenbein eng an die Tagebuchform angelehnt ist.

Frisch selbst vertrat die Auffassung, dass die Tagebuchform die einzige ihm entsprechende Prosaform sei und er sie daher ebenso wenig wählen könne wie die Form seiner Nase.

Rolf Kieser weist darauf hin, dass in der Tagebuchform am deutlichsten Frischs Auffassung Rechnung getragen wird, dass Denken immer nur für einen bestimmten Standpunkt und Kontext stimme und es unmöglich sei, mit Sprache ein geschlossenes Bild der Welt oder auch nur eines einzelnen Lebens zu entwerfen.

Obwohl Max Frisch seine ersten Erfolge im Theater feierte und auch selbst später oft betonte, dass er eigentlich vom Theater komme, zählten neben dem Tagebuch vor allem der Roman und die längere Erzählung zu seinen wichtigsten literarischen Formen.

Insbesondere in späteren Jahren wandte sich Frisch von der Bühne ab und der Prosa zu. Nach eigenen Angaben fühlte er sich unter den subjektiven Anforderungen des Erzählens wohler als unter den objektiven Anforderungen, die die Arbeit am Theater an ihn richtete.

Frischs Prosawerk lässt sich grob in drei Schaffensphasen einteilen. Alle drei sind autobiografisch geprägt, alle kreisen um die Entscheidung des jungen Autors zwischen einer bürgerlichen und einer Künstlerexistenz und lassen ihre Protagonisten unterschiedliche Wege aus Frischs persönlichem Dilemma finden: in der Entwicklung zur Autonomie im Erstling, der an einen klassischen Bildungsroman erinnert, im Scheitern des Lebensentwurfs in seiner Fortsetzung, in der Absage an künstlerische Verwirklichung in der Erzählung.

Gemein ist den drei Romanen die Thematik der Identität und des Verhältnisses zwischen den Geschlechtern. Dabei nimmt Homo faber eine Komplementärposition zu Stiller ein.

Hatte Stiller sich gegen die Festlegungen durch andere gewehrt, legt sich Walter Faber, der Protagonist aus Homo faber , selbst auf die Identität des rationalen Technikers fest.

Inhaltlich zeichnen sich alle drei Texte durch eine thematische Hinwendung zum Tod, einer Lebensbilanz aus.

Formal stehen sie unter dem Motto einer Reduktion von Sprache und Handlungselementen. Die drei Bücher ergänzen sich und sind doch selbständige Einheiten.

Sie gehören zu den erfolgreichsten deutschsprachigen Theaterstücken. Ein Palaver , noch einmal zur politischen Botschaft auf der Bühne zurück.

Für Klaus Müller-Salget war den meisten Bühnenstücken Frischs gemein, dass sie auf der Bühne keine realistischen Situationen darstellen, sondern zeit- und raumübergreifende Gedankenspiele seien.

Typisch seien karge, reduzierte Bühnenbilder, Brechungen wie zweigeteilte Bühnen, ein Chor oder die direkte Ansprache des Publikums.

Immer wieder vergegenwärtige das Stück dem Publikum, dass es Theater sei, auf einer Bühne stattfinde. Im Stile von Brechts epischem Theater solle sich der Zuschauer nicht mit dem Geschehen auf der Bühne identifizieren, sondern durch das Dargestellte zu eigenen Gedanken angeregt werden.

In Abweichung zu Brecht wolle Frisch dem Zuschauer aber keine vorgegebene Einsicht vermitteln, sondern lasse ihm die Freiheit einer eigenen Interpretation.

Frisch selbst bekannte, dass ihn die Theaterarbeit in den ersten Proben am meisten fasziniere, wenn ein Stück noch nicht festgelegt, sondern in seinen Möglichkeiten offen sei.

Frisch führe die Unglaubwürdigkeit des Theaters vor, er strebe seine Durchschaubarkeit an. Dabei herrsche keine Lust am theatralischen Effekt wie etwa bei Dürrenmatt vor, die Effekte brächen sich an Zweifeln und skeptischen Einsichten.

Wirkungen entstünden aus Wortlosigkeit, Verstummen oder Missverständnissen. Wo Dürrenmatts Stücke auf die schlimmstmögliche Wendung zusteuerten, endeten Frischs Dramen oft mit einer dramaturgischen Rückkehr zu ihrem Anfang; das Schicksal seiner Protagonisten sei es, kein Schicksal zu haben.

Frischs Stil wandelte sich in verschiedenen Phasen seines Werks. Dennoch wurde in seinen Werken das Hochdeutsch , das er vor allem als Schrift- und Literatursprache kennengelernt hatte, die bevorzugte Ausdrucksform, wobei er aber immer wieder mundartliche Wendungen als Stilmittel einsetzte.

Frisch war geprägt durch eine grundlegende Sprachskepsis. Man umstellt es. Man gibt Aussagen, die nie unser eigentliches Erlebnis enthalten, das unsagbar bleibt; […] und das eigentliche, das Unsagbare erscheint bestenfalls als Spannung zwischen diesen Aussagen.

Frisch übertrug Prinzipien des epischen Theaters Bertolt Brechts sowohl in sein dramatisches als auch sein erzählendes Werk.

Bereits in Stiller übertrug Frisch mit den eingebetteten Geschichten die Form des fragmentarischen , episodenhaften Erzählens seines literarischen Tagebuchs in einen Roman.

Das literarische Werk Max Frischs ist von einigen grundlegenden Themen und Motiven geprägt, die entweder im Zentrum einer bestimmten Schaffensperiode stehen oder durch das gesamte Werk hindurch immer wieder aufgegriffen und variiert werden.

Nur in der Liebe sei der Mensch bereit, sein Gegenüber mit all seiner Wandelbarkeit, den ihm innewohnenden Möglichkeiten anzunehmen.

Ein zum Klischee erstarrtes Bild werde zur Versündigung des Menschen gegen sich selbst und gegen den anderen.

Die zweite Kategorie thematisiere die Befreiung vom Bildnis, etwa in Stiller oder Mein Name sei Gantenbein , in denen sich die Hauptpersonen neue Identitäten entwerfen, um vorgefertigten Bildnissen zu entkommen.

Im Gegensatz zum Fremdbild steht die menschliche Identität. Für Frisch besitzt jeder Mensch seine einzigartige Individualität , die ihre Berechtigung aus sich selbst beziehe und verwirklicht werden müsse.

Die Furcht, das Ich zu verpassen und damit das Leben zu verfehlen, hat bereits in Frischs Frühwerk eine zentrale Stellung.

Eine misslungene Selbstwahl führe zu einer Entfremdung des Menschen von sich selbst und von der Welt. Nur in der begrenzten Frist eines wirklichen Lebens könne sich die menschliche Existenz erfüllen, da ihre Erlösung im Zustand der endlosen Unveränderbarkeit des Todes ausgeschlossen sei.

Andernfalls ist er nie gewesen! Die männlichen Protagonisten in Frischs Werk lassen sich laut Claus Reschke auf den gemeinsamen Grundtyp eines modernen Intellektuellen zurückführen: egozentrisch , entscheidungsschwach, unsicher in Bezug auf ihr Selbstbild, verkennen sie oft ihre tatsächliche Situation.

Sie sind Agnostiker , in der Beziehung zu anderen Menschen fehlt es ihnen an echter Hingabe, so dass sie das isolierte Leben eines Einzelgängers führen.

Wenn sie tiefere Beziehung zu Frauen entwickeln, verlieren sie ihre emotionale Balance, werden ihres Partners unsicher, besitzergreifend und eifersüchtig.

Immer wieder fallen sie in überkommene Geschlechterrollen und maskieren ihre sexuellen Unsicherheiten durch Chauvinismus.

Gleichzeitig ist ihre Beziehung zu Frauen überschattet von Schuldgefühlen. Sie haben in den Texten, die auf ihre männlichen Protagonisten zentriert sind, eine zweckgebundene, strukturelle Funktion und erweisen sich als austauschbar.

Tatsächlich zeichne sich ihre Motivation aber zumeist durch Kleinlichkeit aus: Treulosigkeit, Besitzgier und Gefühlsmangel.

In Frischs späterem Werk werden die Frauenfiguren zunehmend eindimensionaler, folienhafter und zeigen keine innere Ambivalenz.

Zumeist gehe in Frischs Werken die Aktivität in Partnerbeziehungen von der Frau aus, der Mann verbleibe passiv, abwartend und reflektierend.

Scheinbar werde die Frau vom Mann geliebt, in Wahrheit aber gefürchtet und verachtet. Karin Struck sah Frischs männlichen Protagonisten letztlich abhängig von den Frauenfiguren.

At the same time, the Soldier rapes Barblin; Andri discovers that they had sex. She helps Andri after he is assaulted by the Soldier.

The Mother learns the truth about Andri's parentage, and the Teacher asks the Priest to explain the truth to Andri. Andri is not at all receptive and believes his fate to be sealed.

The Blacks invade, and the Soldier defects and joins them. The townspeople search for Andri, believing him to be a murderer; Andri hides outside, where the Teacher tries to persuade him of the truth, and then inside the Teacher's house with Barblin.

Andri confronts Barblin about her relationship with the Soldier, and tells her to kiss him; he is not acting rationally at this point.

The Soldier enters the house and arrests Andri. This is shown to be a show trial ; despite Barblin and the Mother's attempts to disrupt the process, the other townspeople co-operate.

Afterwards, the Teacher hangs himself. Barblin has her head shaved earlier in the play, the Blacks are rumoured to do to this the wives of Jews and goes mad.

She does not fully accept that Andri has died, and leaves his shoes on the stage, stopping people from touching them. Andorra is an example of epic theatre as opposed to classical theatre , which was popularised by Bertolt Brecht in the early 20th century.

Epic theatre aims to activate the audience into thinking about the important questions and ideas within the play so that he or she can form their own rational opinion for themselves after having been an active, critical observer.

Frisch uses the Verfremdungseffekt distancing effect throughout the play, with the aim of distancing the audience from the action so that they can think about the themes of the play rather than getting immersed in the plot.

Frisch uses these techniques, as he wanted to create a dramatic situation where a character is mistaken for a Jew when he really wasn't one.

In the Diary — Frisch spells out a central idea that runs through his subsequent work: "You shall not make for yourself any graven image, God instructs us.

That should also apply in this sense: God lives in every person, though we may not notice. That oversight is a sin that we commit and it is a sin that is almost ceaselessly committed against us — except if we love".

It is only through love that people may manifest the mutability and versatility necessary to accept one another's intrinsic inner potential.

Without love people reduce one another and the entire world down to a series of simple preformed images.

Hans Jürg Lüthi divides Frisch's work, into two categories according to how this image is treated. In the first category, the destiny of the protagonist is to live the simplistic image.

Examples include the play Andorra in which Andri, identified wrongly by the other characters as a Jew is obliged to work through the fate assigned to him by others.

Something analogous arises with the novel Homo Faber where the protagonist is effectively imprisoned by the technician's "ultra-rational" prism through which he is fated to conduct his existence.

The second category of works identified by Lüthi centres on the theme of libration from the lovelessly predetermined image.

Real personal identity stands in stark contrast to this simplistic image. For Frisch, each person possesses a unique Individualism , justified from the inner being, and which needs to be expressed and realized.

To be effective it can operate only through the individual's life, or else the individual self will be incomplete.

The fear that the individual "myself" may be overlooked and the life thereby missed, was already a central theme in Frisch's early works. A failure in the "selection of self" was likely to result in alienation of the self both from itself and from the human world more generally.

Only within the limited span of an individual human life can personal existence find a fulfilment that can exclude the individual from the endless immutability of death.

In I'm Not Stiller Frisch set out a criterion for a fulfilled life as being "that an individual be identical with himself.

Otherwise he has never really existed". Claus Reschke says that the male protagonists in Frisch's work are all similar modern Intellectual types: egocentric , indecisive, uncertain in respect of their own self-image, they often misjudge their actual situation.

Their interpersonal relationships are superficial to the point of agnosticism, which condemns them to live as isolated loners.

If they do develop some deeper relationship involving women, they lose emotional balance, becoming unreliable partners, possessive and jealous.

They repeatedly assume outdated gender roles , masking sexual insecurity behind chauvinism.

All this time their relationships involving women are overshadowed by feelings of guilt. In a relationship with a woman they look for "real life", from which they can obtain completeness and self-fulfilment, untrammelled by conflict and paralyzing repetition, and which will never lose elements of novelty and spontaneity.

Female protagonists in Frisch's work also lead back to a recurring gender-based stereotype , according to Mona Knapp. Frisch's compositions tend to be centred on male protagonists, around which his leading female characters, virtually interchangeable, fulfil a structural and focused function.

Often they are idolised as "great" and "wonderful", superficially emancipated and stronger than the men.

However, they actually tend to be driven by petty motivations: disloyalty, greed and unfeelingness.

In the author's later works the female characters become increasingly one-dimensional, without evidencing any inner ambivalence.

Often the women are reduced to the role of a simple threat to the man's identity, or the object of some infidelity, thereby catalysing the successes or failings of the male's existence, so providing the male protagonist an object for his own introspection.

For the most part, the action in the male:female relationship in a work by Frisch comes from the woman, while the man remains passive, waiting and reflective.

Superficially the woman is loved by the man, but in truth she is feared and despised. From her thoughtfully feminist perspective, Karin Struck saw Frisch's male protagonists manifesting a high level of dependency on the female characters, but the women remain strangers to them.

The men are, from the outset, focused on the ending of the relationship: they cannot love because they are preoccupied with escaping from their own failings and anxieties.

Often they conflate images of womanliness with images of death, as in Frisch's take on the Don Juan legend: "The woman reminds me of death, the more she seems to blossom and thrive".

Death is an ongoing theme in Frisch's work, but during his early and high periods it remains in the background, overshadowed by identity issues and relationship problems.

Only with his later works does Death become a core question. Frisch's second published Diary Tagebuch launches the theme. A key sentence from the Diary — published , repeated several times, is a quotation from Montaigne :"So I dissolve; and I lose myself" [62] [63] [64] The section focuses on the private and social problems of aging.

Although political demands are incorporated, social aspects remain secondary to the central concentration on the self. The Diary ' s fragmentary and hastily structured informality sustains a melancholy underlying mood.

The narrative Montauk also deals with old age. The autobiographically drawn protanonist's lack of much future throws the emphasis back onto working through the past and an urge to live for the present.

In the drama-piece, Triptychon , Death is presented not necessarily directly, but as a way of referencing life metaphorically.

Death reflects the ossification of human community, and in this way becomes a device for shaping lives.

The narrative Man in the Holocene presents the dying process of an old man as a return to nature. According to Cornelia Steffahn there is no single coherent image of death presented in Frisch's late works.

Instead they describe the process of his own evolving engagement with the issue, and show the way his own attitudes developed as he himself grew older.

Along the way he works through a range of philosophical influences including Montaigne , Kierkegaard , Lars Gustafsson and even Epicurus.

Frisch described himself as a socialist but never joined the political party. In the "Blätter aus dem Brotsack" "diaries of military life" published in , he comes across as a conventional Swiss patriot , reflecting the unifying impact on Swiss society of the perceived invasion risk then emanating from Germany.

After Victory in Europe Day the threat to Swiss values and to the independence of the Swiss state diminished. Frisch now underwent a rapid transformation, evincing a committed political consciousness.

In particular, he became highly critical of attempts to divide cultural values from politics, noting in his Diary — : "He who does not engage with politics is already a partisan of the political outcome that he wishes to preserve, because he is serving the ruling party" [67] [68] Sonja Rüegg, writing in , says that Frisch's aesthetics are driven by a fundamentally anti-ideological and critical animus, formed from a recognition of the writer's status as an outsider within society.

That generates opposition to the ruling order, the privileging of individual partisanship over activity on behalf of a social class, and an emphasis on asking questions.

Frisch's social criticism was particularly sharp in respect of his Swiss homeland. In a much quoted speech that he gave when accepting the Schiller Prize he declared: "I am Swiss, not simply because I hold a Swiss passport, was born on Swiss soil etc.

With his Little service book Dienstbüchlein Frisch revisited and re-evaluated his own period of service in the nation's citizen army , and shortly before he died he went so far as to question outright the need for the army in Switzerland without an Army?

A characteristic pattern in Frisch's life was the way that periods of intense political engagement alternated with periods of retreat back to private concerns.

Bettina Jaques-Bosch saw this as a succession of slow oscillations by the author between public outspokenness and inner melancholy.

Interviewed in , Frisch acknowledged that his literary career had not been marked by some "sudden breakthrough" " In his 20s he was already having pieces published in various newspapers and journals.

As a young writer he also had work accepted by an established publishing house, the Munich based Deutschen Verlags-Anstalt , which already included a number of distinguished German-language authors on its lists.

When he decided he no longer wished to have his work published in Nazi Germany he changed publishers, joining up with Atlantis Verlag which had relocated their head office from Berlin to Zürich in response to the political changes in Germany.

In Frisch switched publishers again, this time to the arguably more mainstream publishing house then being established in Frankfurt by Peter Suhrkamp.

Frisch was still only in his early 30s when he turned to drama, and his stage work found ready acceptance at the Zürich Playhouse , at this time one of Europe's leading theatres, the quality and variety its work much enhanced by an influx of artistic talent since the mids from Germany.

Frisch's early plays, performed at Zürich, were positively reviewed and won prizes. It was only in , with Prince Öderland , that Frisch experienced his first stage-flop.

I'm Not Stiller started with a print-run that provided for sales of 3, in its first year, [77] but thanks to strong and growing reader demand it later became the first book published by Suhrkamp to top one million copies.

Apart from a few early works, most of Frisch's books and plays have been translated into around ten languages, while the most translated of all, Homo Faber , has been translated into twenty-five languages.

Frisch's name is often mentioned along with that of another great writer of his generation, Friedrich Dürrenmatt. The scholar Hans Mayer likened them to the mythical half-twins, Castor and Pollux , as two dialectically linked "antagonists".

In Dürrenmatt took the opportunity of Frisch's 75th birthday to try and effect a reconciliation with a letter, but the letter went unanswered.

The literary journalist Heinz Ludwig Arnold quipped that Dürrenmatt, despite all his narrative work, was born to be a dramatist, while Frisch, his theatre successes notwithstanding, was born to be a writer of narratives.

In the s, by publicly challenging some contradictions and settled assumptions, both Frisch und Dürrenmatt contributed to a major revision in Switzerland's view if itself and of its history.

In Frisch published his Little service book Dienstbüchlein , and from this time — possibly from earlier — Frisch became a powerfully divisive figure in Switzerland , where in some quarters his criticisms were vigorously rejected.

Walter , and Adolf Muschg. More than a generation after that, in , when it was the turn of Swiss literature to be the special focus [86] at the Frankfurt Book Fair , the literary commentator Andreas Isenschmid identified some leading Swiss writers from his own baby-boomer generation such as Ruth Schweikert , Daniel de Roulet and Silvio Huonder in whose works he had found "a curiously familiar old tone, resonating from all directions, and often almost page by page, uncanny echoes from Max Frisch's Stiller.

The works of Frisch were also important in West Germany. Translations of Frisch's works into the languages of other formally socialist countries in the Eastern Bloc were also widely available, leading the author himself to offer the comment that in the Soviet Union his works were officially seen as presenting the "symptoms of a sick capitalist society, symptoms that would never be found where the means of production have been nationalized" [92] [93] Despite some ideologically driven official criticism of his "individualism", "negativity" and "modernism", Frisch's works were actively translated into Russian, and were featured in some reviews in the Soviet Union.

He was generally well regarded by the New York literary establishment: one commentator found him commendably free of "European arrogance".

Jürgen H. Petersen reckons that Frisch's stage work had little influence on other dramatists. And his own preferred form of the "literary diary" failed to create a new trend in literary genres.

By contrast, the novels I'm Not Stiller and Gantenbein have been widely taken up as literary models, both because of the way they home in on questions of individual identity and on account of their literary structures.

Issues of personal identity are presented not simply through description or interior insights, but through narrative contrivances.

This stylistic influence can be found frequently in the works of others, such as Christa Wolf 's The Quest for Christa T. Other similarly influenced authors are Peter Härtling and Dieter Kühn.

Frisch also found himself featuring as a character in the literature of others. That was the case in with Wolfgang Hildesheimer 's Message to Max [Frisch] about the state of things and other matters Mitteilungen an Max über den Stand der Dinge und anderes.

Adolf Muschg , purporting to address Frisch directly on the occasion of his seventieth birthday, contemplates the older man's contribution: "Your position in the history of literature, how can it be described?

You have not been, in conventional terms, an innovator… I believe you have defined an era through something both unobtrusive and fundamental: a new experimental ethos and pathos.

Your books form deep literary investigation from an act of the imagination. He is himself always at the heart of the matter.

His matter is the matter. The film director Alexander J. Seiler believes that Frisch had for the most part an "unfortunate relationship" with film, even though his literary style is often reminiscent of cinematic technique.

Seiler explains that Frisch's work was often, in the author's own words, looking for ways to highlight the "white space" between the words, which is something that can usually only be achieved using a film-set.

Already, in the Diary — there is an early sketch for a film-script, titled Harlequin. In there were plans, under the Title Zürich — Transit , to film an episode from the novel Gantenbein , but the project was halted, initially by differences between Frisch and the film director Erwin Leiser and then, it was reported, by the illness of Bernhard Wicki who was brought in to replace Leiser.

The Zürich — Transit project went ahead in the end, directed by Hilde Bechart, but only in a quarter century later, and a year after Frisch had died.

For the novels I'm Not Stiller and Homo Faber there were several film proposals, one of which involved casting the actor Anthony Quinn in Homo Faber , but none of these proposals was ever realised.

It is nevertheless interesting that several of Frisch's dramas were filmed for television adaptations.

It was in this way that the first filmic adaptation of a Frisch prose work appeared in , thanks to Georg Radanowicz, and titled The Misfortune Das Unglück.

This was based on a sketch from one of Frisch's Diaries. While Frisch was still alive he had collaborated with the filmmaker Volker Schlöndorff on this production, but the critics were nevertheless underwhelmed by the result.

The prize is awarded every four years and comes with a CHF 50, payment to the winner. The th anniversary of Frisch's birth took place in and was marked by an exhibition in his home city of Zürich.

The occasion was also celebrated by an exhibition at the Munich Literature Centre which carried the suitably enigmatic tagline, "Max Frisch.

Heimweh nach der Fremde" and another exhibition at the Museo Onsernonese in Loco , close to the Ticinese cottage to which Frisch regularly retreated over several decades.

In it is intended to name a new city-square in Zürich Max-Frisch-Platz. This is part of a larger urban redevelopment scheme which is being coordinated with a major building project underway to expand Zürich Oerlikon railway station.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Swiss playwright and novelist. Further information: Max Frisch bibliography. In Suzanne M.

Bourgoin and Paula K. Byers, Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale Research, Retrieved 18 April Max Frisch.

Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, , p. In Heinz Ludwig Arnold ed. Sturz durch alle Spiegel: Eine Bestandsaufnahme. Zürich: Ammann, , S.

Vom langsamen Wachsen eines Zorns: Max Frisch — Zürich: Limmat, , p. In Bartram, Graham ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Die Zeit Zeit On-line. Retrieved 8 July Der Spiegel. Retrieved 10 July Die Trauergemeinde bestand aus Intellektuellen, von denen die meisten mit Religion und Kirche nicht viel im Sinn hatten.

Für das anschliessende Essen hatte Frisch selbst noch das Menu zusammengestellt. Neue Zürcher Zeitung.

In: Walter Schmitz Hrsg. Suhrkamp, Seite Gefunden wurde dieses in den Unterlagen von Frischs Sekretärin".

Der Tages-Anzeiger. Retrieved 11 July In Heinz Ludwig Arnold Hrsg. Mein Name sei Gantenbein. Untersuchungen und Anmerkungen. Joachim Beyer Verlag, 2.

Auflage Fragment einer Kritik. In: Thomas Beckermann Hrsg. Seite 8—9. Über Max Frisch , p. Die drei Bücher ergänzen sich und sind doch selbständige Einheiten.

Die Dramen. Literaturwissen , pp. De Gruyter, Berlin , pp. In: Gesammelte Werke in zeitlicher Folge. Dritter Band.

Otherwise he has never really existed". Aus den etwa Notizheften, die Frisch in der Nachkriegszeit anlegte, ging zunächst das literarische Tagebuch mit Marion hervor. Frisch hingegen betrachtete Graf Öderland als eines seiner bedeutendsten Werke und arbeitete es für weitere Aufführungen und um, ohne damit eine wesentlich beifälligere Rezeption zu erreichen. Frisch himself took the view that the diary offered the prose format that corresponded source his natural approach to prose writing, this web page that Max Frisch Wiki could "no more change than the shape Usa Polygamie his nose". The works of Frisch were also important in West Germany. Auf der anderen Seite stellte er fest, dass der akademische Lehrplan ihm nicht das solide schriftstellerische Handwerkszeug vermitteln konnte, das er sich von dem Studium erhofft hatte. Frisch's friend and fellow-writer, Friedrich Dürrenmattexplained that in I'm Not Stiller the "diary-narrative" approach enabled the author to participate as a character in his own novel without embarrassment. Read more had left his wife and children in and now, inhe was divorced. Apart from a few early works, most of Frisch's books and plays have been translated into around ten languages, while the most translated of all, Homo Faberhas been translated into twenty-five languages.

Max Frisch Wiki Video

Homo Faber Max Frisch Hörbuch März Source singen sie wieder. Sein Schweizer Publikum fasste die Aussage des Stückes allerdings zunächst als Warnung vor dem sich ausbreitenden Kommunismus auf. The this web page was rejected for performance in Frankfurt am Main where it was deemed too apolitical. In: Gesammelte Werke in zeitlicher Folge. Auch etwas später tauchte die Thematik der Unvereinbarkeit von bürgerlichem Alltag und künstlerischem Leben wieder in seinen Arbeiten auf und wurde von Frisch unter anderem im Prosatext Bin oder Die Reise nach Peking manifestiert. While Beste Spielothek Pritzwalk finden was at school he met Werner Coninx —who later became a successful artist and collector. Er bot sich als Mentor an und stellte ihm auch bekannte Persönlichkeiten der literarischen Welt vor. Im deutschsprachigen Raum wurde er vor allem durch seine Theaterstücke Andorra just click for source Biedermann und die Brandstifter bekannt. Er hat wie kein anderer unsere Mentalität durchschaut und erkannt". Bereits in seinem Tagebuch war er der Meinung, dass das Wesentliche für die Sprache unsagbar bleibe. Frischs Vorsatz, das Schreiben aufzugeben, wurde jedoch bereits durch den Gewinn des Conrad-Ferdinand-Meyer-Preises konterkariert, der mit immerhin Schweizer Franken dotiert war: Sein Jahresstipendium betrug zu diesem Zeitpunkt Franken. Other similarly influenced authors are Peter Härtling and Dieter Kühn.

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